Sunday, May 24, 2020

Definition and Examples of Cooperative Overlap

In conversation analysis, the term cooperative overlap refers to a face-to-face interaction in which one speaker talks at the same time as another speaker to demonstrate an interest in the conversation. In contrast, an interruptive overlap is a competitive strategy in which one of the speakers attempts to dominate the conversation. The term cooperative overlap was introduced by sociolinguist Deborah Tannen in her book Conversational Style: Analyzing Talk Among Friends (1984). Examples and Observations [Patrick] had to wait another five minutes or so before his wife remembered he was there. The two women were  talking at the same time, asking and answering their own questions. They created a whirlwind of happy chaos.(Julie Garwood, The Secret. Penguin, 1992)Mama sat with Mama Pellegrini, the two of them talking so rapidly that their words and  sentences overlapped  completely. Anna wondered, as she listened from the parlor, how they could understand what each was saying. But they laughed at the same time and raised or lowered their voices at the same time.(Ed Ifkovic,  A Girl Holding Lilacs. Writers Club Press, 2002) Tannen on High Involvement Style One of the most striking aspects of high involvement style that I found and analyzed in detail was the use of what I called cooperative overlap: a listener talking along with a speaker not in order to interrupt but to show enthusiastic listenership and participation. The concept of overlap versus interruption became one of the cornerstones of my argument that the stereotype of New York Jews as pushy and aggressive is an unfortunate reflection of the effect of high involvement style in conversation with speakers who use a different style. (In my study I called the other style high considerateness).(Deborah Tannen, Gender and Discourse. Oxford University Press, 1994) Cooperation or Interruption? Cooperative overlap occurs when one interlocutor is showing her enthusiastic support and agreement with another. Cooperative overlap occurs when the speakers view silence between turns as impolite or as a sign of a lack of rapport. While an overlap may be construed as cooperative in a conversation between two friends, it may be construed as an interruption when between boss and employee. Overlaps and interrogative have different meanings depending on the speakers ethnicity, gender, and relative status differences. For example, when a teacher, a person of higher status, overlaps with her student, a person of lower status, typically the overlap is interpreted as an interruption.(Pamela Saunders, Gossip in an Older Womens Support Group: A Linguistic Analysis. Language and Communication in Old Age: Multidisciplinary Perspectives, ed. by Heidi E. Hamilton. Taylor Francis, 1999) Different Cultural Perceptions of Cooperative Overlap [T]he two-way nature of cross-cultural differences typically eludes participants in the throes of conversation. A speaker who stops talking because another has begun is unlikely to think, I guess we have different attitudes toward cooperative overlap. Instead, such a speaker will probably think, You are not interested in hearing what I have to say, or even You are a boor who only wants to hear yourself talk. And the cooperative overlapper is probably concluding, You are unfriendly and are making me do all the conversational work here... (Deborah Tannen, Language and Culture, in An Introduction to Language and Linguistics, ed. by R. W. Fasold and J. Connor-Linton. Cambridge University Press, 2000)

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Maya Angelou Essay - 1200 Words

Maya Angelou is a phenomenal woman. She was born into a devastating decade, that suffered numerous tragedies. Not only had society shaped her as a woman, she has also shaped our society and influenced many lives. She is still living today, yet I believe her legend will never die. Furthermore I will share with you what motivated her and some of her gratifying experiences. How she was effected by society, and what she did about it. Also how the time period she was born into made her the extraordinary woman she is today. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Maya Angelou was born on April 4, 1928, a year before the crash of 29 (the stock market crash). To get a sense of what exactly Maya was born into, I will explain what exactly this meant. This†¦show more content†¦Her parents mover her back, along with Bailey to Stamps, Arkansas as a cure. Her parents moved to Southern California and were seldom heard from. Her mother remarried in 1940. Maya and Bailey had daily chores to do at the General Store. Their grandmothers general store was a success, many people did not believe that a black woman owned and ran it. Maya had a very close relationship with her older brother Bailey. They always had there secrets jokes in church and she could always talk to him. He was always there for her, she trusted him completely. Mayaamp;#8217;s family, was one of the few black familyamp;#8217;s during the depression that did not suffer severely, mainly because their grandmother owned the general store. Yet, just because the y didnamp;#8217;t suffer severely, they still suffered, they were well fed enough but they would still stop by the poorer familyamp;#8217;s just to get peanut butter, as a treat. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Maya and Bailey move to San Francisco to rejoin with their mother. May gave birth to her son Guy, at age 17. When in high school, she received a two- year scholarship to study dance and drama at the California Labor School. Maya became the first black San Francisco streetcar conductor. She moved to Laurel Canyon in Hollywood, where she sang and raised her son. She didnamp;#8217;t like the fame, so she moved to Washington, where she met Bilie Holiday, She and Bilie became good friends.Show MoreRelatedMaya Angelou655 Words   |  3 PagesMa 2(1565443) Maya Angelou is known as the â€Å"most visible black female autobiographer/poet.† She was born, Marguerite Ann Johnson, on April fourth, 1928 in St. Louis, Missouri. Her parents divorced when she was three, and she and her brother were sent to live with their grandmother in Stamps, Arkansas. Seeing all the racial discrimination in the American south strengthened her passion for poetry, music, dance and performance. Maya writes about the struggles people face, racism and freedom. At ageRead More`` Speak, By The Maya Angelou1137 Words   |  5 Pageswriter, the late Maya Angelou. This statement also aligns to a 1999 contemporary classic novel, Speak, where a young freshman, Melinda Sordino, faces isolation and depression to an event that occurred over the summer, one that only she knows about. In the novel, Melinda hangs up a poster of Maya Angelou in her make-shift janitor’s closet hangout. Laurie Halse Anderson uses Maya Angelou as a figure for Melinda to learn and ch ange by in the novel Speak. Melinda could learn from Angelou that she can standRead More Maya Angelou Essay1926 Words   |  8 Pagesthe time she was born, Maya Angelou was subjected to racism, rape, grief and dehumanization. She beared enough emotional stress in a time frame that most people dont experience in a lifetime. Yet she prevailed. She forced herself to become stronger. And in doing so, she produced writings, which in turn, helped others to become strong. Her experiences and the lessons learned gave her confidence to be a teacher, a preacher, and an inspiration to millions. Maya Angelou was courageous. BasedRead MoreEssay on Maya Angelou612 Words   |  3 Pages Maya Angelou was born April 4, 1928. Her real name is Marguerite Johnson, but she later changed it to Maya. She was born in St. Louis, shortly after her birth her family up and move to Arkansaw. Maya grew up there in the rural parts of Arkansaw, and later married to a South African Freedom Fighter. She lived in Cairo with him, there she began her career as editor of the Arab Observer. At the request of Dr. Martin Lutheran King Jr., she became the northern coordinator for the Southern Christian LeadershipRead MoreEssay on Maya Angelou1185 Words   |  5 PagesDistress in Maya Angelous Life Marguerite Ann Johnson, commonly known as Maya Angelou, was born on April 4, 1928 in St. Louis, Missouri. She is a famous African-American poet, novelist, and playwright and also worked during the civil rights: Angelou is a very remarkable Renaissance woman who hailed as one of the great voices of contemporary literature ( She is also an activist in civil-rights. Angelou went through many controversies during her childhood and adulthood; herRead MoreAnalysis Of Maya Angelou s Angelou 2396 Words   |  10 Pagesparents had decided to put an end to their calamitous marriage and Father shipped us home to mother† (Angelou 7). 1. This excerpt comes from the beginning of chapter one. The narrator, who is also the main character Maya Angelou, informs her reader of her family status. 2. The author informs us that she is currently living with her Father’s mother due to the separation of their parents. 3. Maya Angelou includes this passage to show that there is no perfect marriage and provide knowledge as to how hardRead More Maya Angelou Essay1043 Words   |  5 PagesMaya Angelou      Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   By consistently weaving the theme of motherhood into her literature, Maya Angelou creates both personal narratives and poems that the reader can relate to. Her exploration of this universal theme lends itself to a very large and diverse audience.   Throughout Angelous works, she allows her followers to witness her metamorphosis through different aspects of motherhood.      Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Well-worked themes are always present in Angelous works-   self-Read MoreMaya Angelou Essay883 Words   |  4 PagesMaya Angelou was an inspiring activist, poet, and woman. Angelou was born in St. Louis, Missouri on April 4, 1928. Throughout her lifetime she explored her career options as an actress, dancer, singer, writer, and editor among many other careers. Angelou had a tough childhood. Her parents divorced when she was very young and she was sent to live with her grandmother in Arkansas along with her brother Bailey. As an African American, Angelou experienced discrimination and racial prejudices. AngelouRead MoreEssay On Maya Angelou1879 Words   |  8 PagesMaya Angelou is one of the most important American Authors who ever lived. She was an African-American woman who spoke her mind and when someone told her she couldn’t do something, it made her want to do it even more so that she could prove them wrong (Shapiro). Her life was incredi bly difficult, but it made her who she was and influenced her writing and poetry immensely. As Gary Younge once said, â€Å"To know her life story is to simultaneously wonder what on earth you have been doing with yourRead MoreMaya Angelou: the Lyrical Genius979 Words   |  4 Pages Maya Angelou: the Lyrical Genius When it comes to the struggles of a black woman, Maya Angelou is one of the best writers to interpret these struggles and to have the ability to put them into books and poems. The way Maya Angelou writes just makes you feel as if you were with here through all of the pain and sorrow. Not a lot of authors have the ability to do such a thing. Maya Angelou has the ability to write all of these amazing books and

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Langston Hughes A Poet Supreme Essay - 1879 Words

Langston Hughes: A Poet Supreme Black poetry is poetry that (1) is grounded in the black experience; (2) utilizes black music as a structural or emulative model; and (3) consciously transforms the prevailing standards of poetry through and inconoclastic and innovative use of language. No poet better carries the mantle of model and innovator the Langston Hughes, the prolific Duke Ellington of black poetry. Hughess output alone is staggering. During his lifetime, he published over eight hundred poems. Moreover, he single-handedly defined blues poetry and is arguably the first major jazz poet. Early in his career he realized the importance of reading his poetry to receptive audiences. When Alain Locke arranged a poetry†¦show more content†¦Hughes realized that is was impossible to do what he wanted to do in one piece, so he composed a series of short poems that play effect off eachother. Western literacy thought values the long form, the novel in particular, as a statement of intellectual acheivement a nd implicity devalues short forms. For this reason a collection of short stories rarely recieves equal critical attention as does a novel by the same author. In order to make the long form stand out, the author is expected to demonstrate complexity of plot and character developement. But these and related concerns are simply a culturally biased valuation of a specific set of literacy devices, often at the expense of other devices (many of which center on the sounding of poetry on the page). In a very important sence, modern American poetry was moving toward painting, that is, a composition of words placed on a page, and away from music, that is, an articulation of words that have been both sense (meaning) and sound (emotion). Hughes clearly close to emphasize black music, which increasingly meant dealing with improvisation. The improvisation is implied in that certain themes, rhymes and rhythmic patterns, and recurring images ebb and flow throughout Montage- here spelled out i nShow MoreRelatedLangston Hughes and Countee Cullen: Perspective on Religion4176 Words   |  17 PagesAmerican Literature II Authors: Langston Hughes and Countee Cullen: Perspective on Religion Susan Glaspell and Charlotte Gilman: Roles of Women W.E.B Du Bois and Booker T Washington: Political View In the 1920s, the somewhat genteel world of American poetry was shaken to its foundations when the Harlem Renaissance started. During those times, all over the United States, thereRead MoreEssay about The Harlem Renaissance1582 Words   |  7 Pagesnorth because of the racism still lingering in the south, for example the Plessy vs. Ferguson Supreme Court case. This case was about a light-skin colored man sitting in the â€Å"white† car of a train. Although he was light-skin he was still considered black and got arrested for sitting in that section of the train. This was an opportunity to express racial equality, but the end result was devastating. The Supreme Court declared that segregation of race was to be still constitutionally acceptable. Also economicRead MoreLangston Hughes Research Paper25309 Words   |  102 PagesIn 1919, when Langston Hughes was seventeen years old, he spent the summer with his father, Jim Hughes, in Toluca, Mexico. Langston had not seen his father since he was a small child, and he was excited about making the trip. However, during this visit, no affectionate bond would develop between Langston and Jim. Jim Hughes was a cold, difficult man, who was driven by ambition to make money and achieve respect. He had moved to Mexico to avoid segregation and racial injustice in the United StatesRead MoreWhat Identity `` Meaning `` By Langston Hughes2638 Words   |  11 PagesWhat â€Å"Identity† Means In The Poems of Langston Hughes Before I explain my take on what identity means in Langston Hughes works, I would like explain a little about a man who happened to be one of the most recognizable names in African- American literature, and the struggle he faced – as a writer and mostly as an African American. A brief glimpse into our darkest days (in American history of slavery) and description of his life and about him will help elucidate the background, and his style of writingRead MoreAnalysis Of The Poem Langston Hughes 2630 Words   |  11 PagesDaragon Wendwesen Stanford Searl English 102, fall 2014 December 12, 2014 Paper Five What â€Å"Identity† Means In The Poems of Langston Hughes Before I explain my take on what identity means in Langston Hughes works, I would like explain a little about a man who happened to be one of the most recognizable names in African- American literature, and the struggle he faced – as a writer and mostly as an African American. A brief glimpse into our darkest days and description of his life and about him willRead MoreThe Countercultures: Once Pooh-poohed, Now Revered1275 Words   |  6 PagesAssociation and African Communities League in the same community, and by the end of the 1920s, Harlem was not only known as a Mecca for art to Negroes but for people everywhere, even those in Europe as even â€Å"White people began to come to Harlem in droves.† (Hughes) All these happenings, collectively, are known as being a part of the Harlem Renaissance. The Harlem Renaissance is known for being the peak of Black thought. The changes for the United States that not only the Harlem Renaissance’s political activistsRead Mor eHow The Great Migration Impacted The Harlem Renaissance2641 Words   |  11 Pagesafter World War I, they were able to migrate to the north to more urban settings to find work.# This movement was called the Great Migration and it led to and affected the Harlem Renaissance by inspiring great works of art from artists such as Langston Hughes and many others which in turn led to the civil rights movement as African Americans began to gain recognition for their societal value and ultimately for them to gain respect as   individuals. Prior to World War I, there was the ReconstructionRead MoreThe First African American Justice Of The Supreme Court, And Served For 24 Years1113 Words   |  5 PagesIntroduction I was the first African-American justice of the Supreme Court, and served for 24 years. I once said, â€Å"None of us got here by solely pulling ourselves up by our bootstraps. We got here because somebody bent down and help us pick up our bootstraps.† I was a civil rights activist, attorney, and judge. I argued and won a variety of cases to end many forms of legalized racism that helped to inspire the American Civil Rights Movement. Some people say that I was instrumental in ending legalRead MoreRichard Wright s Black Boy1310 Words   |  6 Pagesto succeed he needed to move. He went from Arkansas to Chicago during The Great Migration of Blacks from the South to the North. At his school he met Harry H. Pace, president of Supreme Liberty Life Insurance and ever since that day he knew he wanted to graduate and go into business. â€Å"Johnson becomes editor of Supreme s monthly newspaper,† (Kinnon 3). At one point he was interested in buying a lot or an area of land in downtown Chicago but because of his race he was refused the option. The determinationRead MoreThe Civil Rights Movement : Thurgood Marshall Law1501 Words   |  7 Pagestrail for the Civil Rights Movement from two sides of the American Legal System, both as a lawyer, and as a Justice of the Supreme Court. Marshall’s initial rise to fame came as a result of his success as the head lawyer for the Brown family in Brown vs. The Board of Education. Later, Marshall was appointed to the Supreme Court, making him the first ever African American Supreme Court Justice in American history. Overall, Marshall’s impact as a lawyer, a judge, and an activist, was essential to the

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Web 2.0 and Green ICT

Question: Discuss about the Web 2.0 and Green ICT. Answer: Introduction: Green ICT is the need of the current era in order to maintain the balance of the ecosystem and Web 2.0 developments have proved to be of a great aid in the process. However, there are certain issues that have been identified in the application of Green ICT with Web 2.0. The first and the foremost challenge are in terms of making a successful shift from traditional web development processes towards Web 2.0 in collaboration with the Green ICT. There are various changes that get introduced with the same in terms of organizational policies and operations that emerge as a challenge. It has been observed that the organizations find it difficult to move from the ordered mode of implementation to the newer processes (Kazlauskas, 2009). Also, the employees show resistance towards the change that impacts the productivity and efficiency levels. Another major challenge that has been encountered in relation with Web 2.0 and Green ICT practices is in terms of the skills that are required for the s ame. There are organizations that have the objective to adopt the green ICT practices in all of their development activities but do not have the adequate skills and strategy for the same. Energy efficient practices have still not been included in a number of ICT and Web 2.0 training sessions which become a major cause of the lack of expertise. There are also increased security risks in the world of web and the same has impacted Web 2.0 development as well. The occurrence of such an attack or risk also brings down the progress in terms of Green ICT (Cepis, 2011). References Cepis, (2011). Green ICT: Trends and Challenges. [online] Available at: [Accessed 23 Nov. 2016]. Kazlauskas, A. (2009). Web 2.0 Solutions to Wicked Climate Change Problems. [online] Available at: [Accessed 23 Nov. 2016].