Wednesday, August 26, 2020
I-telephone commercial Essay A colossal measure of potential just as a gigantic measure of debate is related with the new period of recorded music and particularly in regards to how the new advanced innovation relates to specialists eminences and corporate benefits. The issue is fundamentally one of free-get to and the discussion over document sharing and free downloading which has been seething for a long time now. With new items like the I-telephone further building up computerized access and convenientce at the top-level of customer request, the debate in regards to corporate and craftsman eminences and issues of copyright vows to stretch out far into what's to come. The I-telephone is spoken to in an ongoing promotion as nearly as a characteristic power of nature and infers that the individuals who have not encountered its abilities are, actually, carrying on with a lesser-life; (I-unit, 2007) in certainty the new time of music has arrived whether or not the following turn in innovation will grow or limit access for buyers. The general issue can be broken into two sub-issues 1) record sharing by shoppers which brings about eminence misfortunes for the corporate or craftsmen interests and 2) the issue of fan-made remixes of specialists material which may bring about an extreme adjustment of what the craftsman initially expected. All together for the two issues to be tended to at the same time it will be important to receive some type of free document sharing which isn't entirely free, and which we will by and by examine. Proposition My proposition is that all major-mark record organizations incorporate the alternative of a set number of document share downloads which are accessible for the individuals who buy a particular number of items or potentially pay a charge to get to this administration. This means each significant name would post the music on their name on the web and permit free downloads of a part of their list while leaving the most sultry freshest discharges or specialty showcase items in a condition of purchase as it were. At the same time, the marks could offer on online DJ or radio assistance which should work comparably to the Yahoo online Jukebox or other comparative destinations. The free access of tests of the record names list would likewise be a type of music sharing however not document sharing as the records could be heard nearby yet not downloaded. Contradicting Views The new-influx of innovation has not just made it harder for feature craftsmen to guarantee that their due sovereignties are paid to them for their music, yet it has made it significantly more hard for large name specialists to guarantee that anybody is in any event, tuning in to their music by any means. The possibility that little league artists and even un-marked artists and groups can pull in downloads just as those demonstrations and groups which are supported by tremendous companies. The new condition is a double test to music industry players To begin with, with so much music accessible, the best danger to enormous record organizations isn't that audience members will expend their music illicitly however that they will devour, regardless of whether legitimately or wrongfully, somebody elses music totally (Drew, 2005; p. 543) which might be the most energizing guarantee of all from a purchasers point of view. Examination sources show that the extreme development has recently started and will have remote that cant be directly anticipated. One legitimate source, Edgar Bronfman Jr., the head of Universal, the universes greatest music company,(Mann, 2000; p. 39) said the accompanying with respect to the eventual fate of the media outlets: a couple of snaps of your mouse will make it workable for you to bring each book at any point written in any language, each film at any point made, each TV program at any point created, and each bit of music at any point recorded. In this immense scholarly center nothing will until kingdom come be no longer in production or difficult to track down; each piece of human culture interpreted, regardless of how dark or monetarily ineffective, will be accessible to all. (Mann, 2000; p. 39) obviously to Bronfman and others like him with a personal stake in the utilization of diversion items, especially music, the new advancements are seen as a shrewd danger. This danger is money related in nature: the idea of such frameworks spreading to films, recordings, books, and magazines has captivated the consideration of craftsmen, authors, and makers (Mann, 2000; p. 40) every one of whom are, clearly, hoping to save and expand their worthwhile budgetary property into the new age. End It is difficult to totally close down document sharing of music on the web or to totally stop online music theft. Nonetheless, a comparable circumstance existed and still exists for motion pictures, TV programs, and computer games which can all be unlawfully recorded and shared just as tore without due compensation to the organizations and craftsmen who delivered them. By embracing new ways to deal with free-share alternatives, record organizations and craftsmen may in any event start to recoup a portion of the lost income base they have encountered as buyers move to unlawful locales for document downloads. References Mysterious. I-telephone notice, filed You-Tube; got to 11-26-07 ; http://youtube. com/watch? v=FLxB4pHH_GY Mann, Charles C. Glorious Jukebox: Rampant Music Piracy May Hurt Musicians Less Than They Fear. the Real Threat to Listeners and, Conceivably, Democracy Itself Is the Music Industrys Reaction to It; The Atlantic Monthly, Vol. 286, September 2000. p. 39+ Drew, Rob. Blended Blessings: The Commercial Mix and the Future of Music Aggregation; Popular Music and Society, Vol. 28, 2005. p. 533+
Posted by Jenna Loftus at 5:42 PM
Saturday, August 22, 2020
Surveys for paper - Essay Example .......................................................................................................................... Why?.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Why?........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Why?.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Why?........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Why?.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Explain........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Why?.................................................................................................................................................................................................
Posted by Jenna Loftus at 9:00 AM
Friday, August 21, 2020
Holism Definition and Examples Theories Behavioral Psychology Print What Is Holism? How psychologists use holism to understand behavior By Kendra Cherry facebook twitter Kendra Cherry, MS, is an author, educational consultant, and speaker focused on helping students learn about psychology. Learn about our editorial policy Kendra Cherry Reviewed by Reviewed by Amy Morin, LCSW on July 28, 2019 facebook twitter instagram Amy Morin, LCSW, is a psychotherapist, author of the bestselling book 13 Things Mentally Strong People Dont Do, and a highly sought-after speaker. Learn about our Wellness Board Amy Morin, LCSW on July 28, 2019 Verywell / Laura Porter More in Theories Behavioral Psychology Cognitive Psychology Developmental Psychology Personality Psychology Social Psychology Biological Psychology Psychosocial Psychology In This Article Table of Contents Expand A Closer Look How Itâs Used Benefits Drawbacks Psychology Examples Holism vs. Reductionism View All Back To Top In psychology, holism is an approach to understanding the human mind and behavior that focuses on looking at things as a whole. It is often contrasted with reductionism, which instead tries to break things down into their smallest parts. Holism suggests that people are more than simply the sum of their parts. In order to understand how people think, holism suggests that you need to do more than simply focus on how each individual component functions in isolation. Instead, psychologists who take this approach believe that it is more important to look at how all the parts work together. A Closer Look As an approach to understanding systems, holism is used in psychology as well as in other areas including medicine, philosophy, ecology, and economics. One key phrase that summarizes the key idea behind the holistic approach is that âthe whole is more than the sum of its parts.â In order to understand why people do the things they do and think the way they think, holism proposes that it is necessary to look at the entire person. Rather than focus on just one aspect of the problem, it is necessary to recognize that various factors interact and influence each other. One reason why it is so important to consider the entire being is that the whole may possess emergent properties. These are qualities or characteristics that are present in the whole but cannot be observed by looking at the individual pieces. Consider the human brain, for example. The brain contains millions of neurons, but just looking at each individual neuron will not tell you what the brain can do. It is only by looking at the brain holistically, by looking at how all the pieces work together, that you can see how messages are transmitted, how memories are stored, and how decisions are made. Even looking at other aspects of the brain such as the individual structures does not really tell the whole story. It is only when taking a more holistic approach that we are truly able to appreciate how all the pieces work together. In fact, one of the earliest debates in the field of neurology centered on whether the brain was homogeneous and could not be broken down further (holism) or whether certain functions were localized in specific cortical areas (reductionism). Today, researchers recognize that certain parts of the brain act in specific ways, but these individual parts interact and work together to create and influence different functions. How Our Brain Neurons Can Change Over Time From Lifes Experience How Itâs Used When looking at questions in psychology, researchers might take a holistic approach by considering how different factors work together and interact to influence the entire person. At the broadest level, holism would look at every single influence that might impact behavior or functioning. A humanistic psychologist, for example, might consider an individuals environment (including where they live and work), their social connections (including friends, family, and co-workers), their background (including childhood experiences and educational level), and physical health (including current wellness and stress levels). The goal of this level of analysis is to be able to not only consider how each of these variables might impact overall well-being but to also see how these factors interact and influence one another. In other cases, holism might be a bit more focused. Social psychologists, for example, strive to understand how and why groups behave as they do. Sometimes groups react differently than individuals do, so looking at group behavior more holistically allows research to assess emergent properties that might be present. Benefits Just like the reductionist approach to psychology, holism has both advantages and disadvantages. For example, holism can be helpful at times when looking at the big picture allows the psychologist to see things they might have otherwise missed. In other cases, however, focusing on the whole might cause them to overlook some of the finer details. Some of the key benefits of this perspective include: It Incorporates Many Factors One of the big advantages of the holistic approach is that it allows researchers to assess multiple factors that might contribute to a psychological problem. Rather than simply focusing on one small part of an issue, researchers can instead look at all of the elements that may play a role. This approach can ultimately help them find solutions that address all of the contributing internal and external factors that might be influencing the health of an individual. This is sometimes more effective than addressing smaller components individually. By looking at people holistically, health care providers can address all of the many factors that might affect how a person is feeling, including their mind, their body, and their environment. It Looks at the Big Picture When researching a topic, its frequently helpful to step back and look at the big picture. Reductionism tends to focus solely on the trees, but holism allows psychologists to view the entire forest. This can be true of both the research and treatment of mental health issues. When trying to help a client with symptoms of a psychiatric condition, for example, looking at the patient holistically allows mental health professionals to see all of the factors that affect the patientâs daily life, and also how the patient interacts with their environment. Using this type of approach, therapists are often better able to address individual symptoms. Human behavior is complex, so explaining it often requires an approach that is able to account for this complexity. Holism allows researchers to provide a fully inclusive answer to difficult questions about how people think, feel, and behave. Drawbacks While holism has a number of key advantages, there are also some important drawbacks to consider. Some of these include: It Tends to Be Non-Specific When trying to solve a problem, it is often important to focus on a particular aspect of the issue in order to come up with a solution. Holism tends to be more generalized, which can sometimes make precision more difficult. Scientists, in particular, must be able to focus their research on clearly defined variables and hypotheses. Looking at something too broadly can make it difficult to conduct tests using the scientific method, largely due to the fact that it incorporates so many varied factors and influences. It Can Be Overly Complex Because holism is so all-inclusive, it can make scientific investigations very challenging and complex. There may be many different variables to account for, as well as a plethora of potential interactions. This can make this approach unwieldy at times. Examples in Psychology There are a number of examples in the field of psychology of how holism can be used to view the human mind and behavior. The early schools of thought, structuralism and functionalism, are good examples of reductionist and holistic views. Structuralism focused on breaking down elements of behavior into their smallest possible components (reductionism), whereas functionalism focused on looking at things as a whole and considering the actual purpose and function of behaviors (holism). Throughout history, there have been other perspectives and branches of psychology that have also taken a holistic approach. Gestalt Psychology Gestalt psychology is a school of thought that is rooted in holism. The Gestalt psychologists not only believed that human behavior needed to be viewed as a whole; they also worked to understand how the human mind itself uses a holistic approach to make sense of the world. The Gestalt laws of perceptual organization, demonstrate that the ways in which individual items relate to one another can influence how we see them. When similar items are viewed together, the law of similarity, for example, suggests that people will perceive them as components of a whole. Humanistic Psychology Humanistic psychology is a branch of psychology that emerged in the 1950s partially as a response to behaviorism. Where behaviorism had taken a reductionist approach to explain human behavior, humanist thinkers are more interested in looking at behavior holistically. This approach to psychology looks at all of the factors that contribute to how people think and act, as well as how all of these different components interact. Abraham Maslowâs famous hierarchy of needs is one example of a humanistic theory that takes a holistic look at human motivation. This theory doesnt focus on any single aspect of motivation. Instead, it incorporates many aspects including environmental, social, and emotional influences. Social Psychology Social psychology tends to take a holistic approach since it considers individuals in their social context. In particular, this branch of psychology looks at how group behavior is often different than individual behavior, which is a good example of emergent properties and the sum being more than its parts. Holism vs. Reductionism One way to look at how holism and reductionism are used is to observe how these approaches might be applied when studying a specific psychological problem. Imagine that researchers are interested in learning more about depression. A scientist using the reductionist approach might look at a highly specific factor that influences depression, such as neurotransmitter levels in the brain.A researcher using the holistic approach might instead focus on understanding how different contributing factors might interact, such as examining how thought patterns, social relationships, and neurotransmitter levels influence a personâs depression levels. A Word From Verywell Much of the appeal of holism lies in its ability to incorporate all of the elements that make us who we are. People are infinitely complex and varied, and holism is able to address all of the external and internal factors that influence our past, present, and future. Different areas of psychology often tend to focus on either one approach or the other. While reductionism and holism are often pitted against one another, they both serve an important role in helping researchers better understand human psychology. The 7 Major Schools of Thought in Psychology
Posted by Jenna Loftus at 6:02 AM
Sunday, May 24, 2020
In conversation analysis, the term cooperative overlap refers to a face-to-face interaction in which one speaker talks at the same time as another speaker to demonstrate an interest in the conversation. In contrast, an interruptive overlap is a competitive strategy in which one of the speakers attempts to dominate the conversation. The term cooperative overlap was introduced by sociolinguist Deborah Tannen in her book Conversational Style: Analyzing Talk Among Friends (1984). Examples and Observations [Patrick] had to wait another five minutes or so before his wife remembered he was there. The two women wereÃ talking at the same time, asking and answering their own questions. They created a whirlwind of happy chaos.(Julie Garwood, The Secret. Penguin, 1992)Mama sat with Mama Pellegrini, the two of them talking so rapidly that their words andÃ sentences overlappedÃ completely. Anna wondered, as she listened from the parlor, how they could understand what each was saying. But they laughed at the same time and raised or lowered their voices at the same time.(Ed Ifkovic,Ã A Girl Holding Lilacs. Writers Club Press, 2002) Tannen on High Involvement Style One of the most striking aspects of high involvement style that I found and analyzed in detail was the use of what I called cooperative overlap: a listener talking along with a speaker not in order to interrupt but to show enthusiastic listenership and participation. The concept of overlap versus interruption became one of the cornerstones of my argument that the stereotype of New York Jews as pushy and aggressive is an unfortunate reflection of the effect of high involvement style in conversation with speakers who use a different style. (In my study I called the other style high considerateness).(Deborah Tannen, Gender and Discourse. Oxford University Press, 1994) Cooperation or Interruption? Cooperative overlap occurs when one interlocutor is showing her enthusiastic support and agreement with another. Cooperative overlap occurs when the speakers view silence between turns as impolite or as a sign of a lack of rapport. While an overlap may be construed as cooperative in a conversation between two friends, it may be construed as an interruption when between boss and employee. Overlaps and interrogative have different meanings depending on the speakers ethnicity, gender, and relative status differences. For example, when a teacher, a person of higher status, overlaps with her student, a person of lower status, typically the overlap is interpreted as an interruption.(Pamela Saunders, Gossip in an Older Womens Support Group: A Linguistic Analysis. Language and Communication in Old Age: Multidisciplinary Perspectives, ed. by Heidi E. Hamilton. Taylor Francis, 1999) Different Cultural Perceptions of Cooperative Overlap [T]he two-way nature of cross-cultural differences typically eludes participants in the throes of conversation. A speaker who stops talking because another has begun is unlikely to think, I guess we have different attitudes toward cooperative overlap. Instead, such a speaker will probably think, You are not interested in hearing what I have to say, or even You are a boor who only wants to hear yourself talk. And the cooperative overlapper is probably concluding, You are unfriendly and are making me do all the conversational work here... (Deborah Tannen, Language and Culture, in An Introduction to Language and Linguistics, ed. by R. W. Fasold and J. Connor-Linton. Cambridge University Press, 2000)
Posted by Jenna Loftus at 6:18 PM
Thursday, May 14, 2020
Maya Angelou is a phenomenal woman. She was born into a devastating decade, that suffered numerous tragedies. Not only had society shaped her as a woman, she has also shaped our society and influenced many lives. She is still living today, yet I believe her legend will never die. Furthermore I will share with you what motivated her and some of her gratifying experiences. How she was effected by society, and what she did about it. Also how the time period she was born into made her the extraordinary woman she is today. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Maya Angelou was born on April 4, 1928, a year before the crash of 29 (the stock market crash). To get a sense of what exactly Maya was born into, I will explain what exactly this meant. ThisÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Her parents mover her back, along with Bailey to Stamps, Arkansas as a cure. Her parents moved to Southern California and were seldom heard from. Her mother remarried in 1940. Maya and Bailey had daily chores to do at the General Store. Their grandmothers general store was a success, many people did not believe that a black woman owned and ran it. Maya had a very close relationship with her older brother Bailey. They always had there secrets jokes in church and she could always talk to him. He was always there for her, she trusted him completely. Mayaamp;#8217;s family, was one of the few black familyamp;#8217;s during the depression that did not suffer severely, mainly because their grandmother owned the general store. Yet, just because the y didnamp;#8217;t suffer severely, they still suffered, they were well fed enough but they would still stop by the poorer familyamp;#8217;s just to get peanut butter, as a treat. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Maya and Bailey move to San Francisco to rejoin with their mother. May gave birth to her son Guy, at age 17. When in high school, she received a two- year scholarship to study dance and drama at the California Labor School. Maya became the first black San Francisco streetcar conductor. She moved to Laurel Canyon in Hollywood, where she sang and raised her son. She didnamp;#8217;t like the fame, so she moved to Washington, where she met Bilie Holiday, She and Bilie became good friends.Show MoreRelatedMaya Angelou655 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesMa 2(1565443) Maya Angelou is known as the Ã¢â¬Å"most visible black female autobiographer/poet.Ã¢â¬ She was born, Marguerite Ann Johnson, on April fourth, 1928 in St. Louis, Missouri. Her parents divorced when she was three, and she and her brother were sent to live with their grandmother in Stamps, Arkansas. Seeing all the racial discrimination in the American south strengthened her passion for poetry, music, dance and performance. Maya writes about the struggles people face, racism and freedom. At ageRead More`` Speak, By The Maya Angelou1137 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pageswriter, the late Maya Angelou. This statement also aligns to a 1999 contemporary classic novel, Speak, where a young freshman, Melinda Sordino, faces isolation and depression to an event that occurred over the summer, one that only she knows about. In the novel, Melinda hangs up a poster of Maya Angelou in her make-shift janitorÃ¢â¬â¢s closet hangout. Laurie Halse Anderson uses Maya Angelou as a figure for Melinda to learn and ch ange by in the novel Speak. Melinda could learn from Angelou that she can standRead More Maya Angelou Essay1926 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesthe time she was born, Maya Angelou was subjected to racism, rape, grief and dehumanization. She beared enough emotional stress in a time frame that most people dont experience in a lifetime. Yet she prevailed. She forced herself to become stronger. And in doing so, she produced writings, which in turn, helped others to become strong. Her experiences and the lessons learned gave her confidence to be a teacher, a preacher, and an inspiration to millions. Maya Angelou was courageous. BasedRead MoreEssay on Maya Angelou612 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pages Maya Angelou was born April 4, 1928. Her real name is Marguerite Johnson, but she later changed it to Maya. She was born in St. Louis, shortly after her birth her family up and move to Arkansaw. Maya grew up there in the rural parts of Arkansaw, and later married to a South African Freedom Fighter. She lived in Cairo with him, there she began her career as editor of the Arab Observer. At the request of Dr. Martin Lutheran King Jr., she became the northern coordinator for the Southern Christian LeadershipRead MoreEssay on Maya Angelou1185 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesDistress in Maya Angelous Life Marguerite Ann Johnson, commonly known as Maya Angelou, was born on April 4, 1928 in St. Louis, Missouri. She is a famous African-American poet, novelist, and playwright and also worked during the civil rights: Angelou is a very remarkable Renaissance woman who hailed as one of the great voices of contemporary literature (www.mayaangelou.com). She is also an activist in civil-rights. Angelou went through many controversies during her childhood and adulthood; herRead MoreAnalysis Of Maya Angelou s Angelou 2396 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pagesparents had decided to put an end to their calamitous marriage and Father shipped us home to motherÃ¢â¬ (Angelou 7). 1. This excerpt comes from the beginning of chapter one. The narrator, who is also the main character Maya Angelou, informs her reader of her family status. 2. The author informs us that she is currently living with her FatherÃ¢â¬â¢s mother due to the separation of their parents. 3. Maya Angelou includes this passage to show that there is no perfect marriage and provide knowledge as to how hardRead More Maya Angelou Essay1043 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesMaya Angelou Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã By consistently weaving the theme of motherhood into her literature, Maya Angelou creates both personal narratives and poems that the reader can relate to. Her exploration of this universal theme lends itself to a very large and diverse audience.Ã Throughout Angelous works, she allows her followers to witness her metamorphosis through different aspects of motherhood. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Well-worked themes are always present in Angelous works-Ã self-Read MoreMaya Angelou Essay883 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesMaya Angelou was an inspiring activist, poet, and woman. Angelou was born in St. Louis, Missouri on April 4, 1928. Throughout her lifetime she explored her career options as an actress, dancer, singer, writer, and editor among many other careers. Angelou had a tough childhood. Her parents divorced when she was very young and she was sent to live with her grandmother in Arkansas along with her brother Bailey. As an African American, Angelou experienced discrimination and racial prejudices. AngelouRead MoreEssay On Maya Angelou1879 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesMaya Angelou is one of the most important American Authors who ever lived. She was an African-American woman who spoke her mind and when someone told her she couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t do something, it made her want to do it even more so that she could prove them wrong (Shapiro). Her life was incredi bly difficult, but it made her who she was and influenced her writing and poetry immensely. As Gary Younge once said, Ã¢â¬Å"To know her life story is to simultaneously wonder what on earth you have been doing with yourRead MoreMaya Angelou: the Lyrical Genius979 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Maya Angelou: the Lyrical Genius When it comes to the struggles of a black woman, Maya Angelou is one of the best writers to interpret these struggles and to have the ability to put them into books and poems. The way Maya Angelou writes just makes you feel as if you were with here through all of the pain and sorrow. Not a lot of authors have the ability to do such a thing. Maya Angelou has the ability to write all of these amazing books and
Posted by Jenna Loftus at 1:16 AM
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Langston Hughes: A Poet Supreme Black poetry is poetry that (1) is grounded in the black experience; (2) utilizes black music as a structural or emulative model; and (3) consciously transforms the prevailing standards of poetry through and inconoclastic and innovative use of language. No poet better carries the mantle of model and innovator the Langston Hughes, the prolific Duke Ellington of black poetry. Hughess output alone is staggering. During his lifetime, he published over eight hundred poems. Moreover, he single-handedly defined blues poetry and is arguably the first major jazz poet. Early in his career he realized the importance of reading his poetry to receptive audiences. When Alain Locke arranged a poetryÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Hughes realized that is was impossible to do what he wanted to do in one piece, so he composed a series of short poems that play effect off eachother. Western literacy thought values the long form, the novel in particular, as a statement of intellectual acheivement a nd implicity devalues short forms. For this reason a collection of short stories rarely recieves equal critical attention as does a novel by the same author. In order to make the long form stand out, the author is expected to demonstrate complexity of plot and character developement. But these and related concerns are simply a culturally biased valuation of a specific set of literacy devices, often at the expense of other devices (many of which center on the sounding of poetry on the page). In a very important sence, modern American poetry was moving toward painting, that is, a composition of words placed on a page, and away from music, that is, an articulation of words that have been both sense (meaning) and sound (emotion). Hughes clearly close to emphasize black music, which increasingly meant dealing with improvisation. The improvisation is implied in that certain themes, rhymes and rhythmic patterns, and recurring images ebb and flow throughout Montage- here spelled out i nShow MoreRelatedLangston Hughes and Countee Cullen: Perspective on Religion4176 Words Ã |Ã 17 PagesAmerican Literature II Authors: Langston Hughes and Countee Cullen: Perspective on Religion Susan Glaspell and Charlotte Gilman: Roles of Women W.E.B Du Bois and Booker T Washington: Political View In the 1920s, the somewhat genteel world of American poetry was shaken to its foundations when the Harlem Renaissance started. During those times, all over the United States, thereRead MoreEssay about The Harlem Renaissance1582 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesnorth because of the racism still lingering in the south, for example the Plessy vs. Ferguson Supreme Court case. This case was about a light-skin colored man sitting in the Ã¢â¬Å"whiteÃ¢â¬ car of a train. Although he was light-skin he was still considered black and got arrested for sitting in that section of the train. This was an opportunity to express racial equality, but the end result was devastating. The Supreme Court declared that segregation of race was to be still constitutionally acceptable. Also economicRead MoreLangston Hughes Research Paper25309 Words Ã |Ã 102 PagesIn 1919, when Langston Hughes was seventeen years old, he spent the summer with his father, Jim Hughes, in Toluca, Mexico. Langston had not seen his father since he was a small child, and he was excited about making the trip. However, during this visit, no affectionate bond would develop between Langston and Jim. Jim Hughes was a cold, difficult man, who was driven by ambition to make money and achieve respect. He had moved to Mexico to avoid segregation and racial injustice in the United StatesRead MoreWhat Identity `` Meaning `` By Langston Hughes2638 Words Ã |Ã 11 PagesWhat Ã¢â¬Å"IdentityÃ¢â¬ Means In The Poems of Langston Hughes Before I explain my take on what identity means in Langston Hughes works, I would like explain a little about a man who happened to be one of the most recognizable names in African- American literature, and the struggle he faced Ã¢â¬â as a writer and mostly as an African American. A brief glimpse into our darkest days (in American history of slavery) and description of his life and about him will help elucidate the background, and his style of writingRead MoreAnalysis Of The Poem Langston Hughes 2630 Words Ã |Ã 11 PagesDaragon Wendwesen Stanford Searl English 102, fall 2014 December 12, 2014 Paper Five What Ã¢â¬Å"IdentityÃ¢â¬ Means In The Poems of Langston Hughes Before I explain my take on what identity means in Langston Hughes works, I would like explain a little about a man who happened to be one of the most recognizable names in African- American literature, and the struggle he faced Ã¢â¬â as a writer and mostly as an African American. A brief glimpse into our darkest days and description of his life and about him willRead MoreThe Countercultures: Once Pooh-poohed, Now Revered1275 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAssociation and African Communities League in the same community, and by the end of the 1920s, Harlem was not only known as a Mecca for art to Negroes but for people everywhere, even those in Europe as even Ã¢â¬Å"White people began to come to Harlem in droves.Ã¢â¬ (Hughes) All these happenings, collectively, are known as being a part of the Harlem Renaissance. The Harlem Renaissance is known for being the peak of Black thought. The changes for the United States that not only the Harlem RenaissanceÃ¢â¬â¢s political activistsRead Mor eHow The Great Migration Impacted The Harlem Renaissance2641 Words Ã |Ã 11 Pagesafter World War I, they were able to migrate to the north to more urban settings to find work.# This movement was called the Great Migration and it led to and affected the Harlem Renaissance by inspiring great works of art from artists such as Langston Hughes and many others which in turn led to the civil rights movement as African Americans began to gain recognition for their societal value and ultimately for them to gain respect as Ã individuals. Prior to World War I, there was the ReconstructionRead MoreThe First African American Justice Of The Supreme Court, And Served For 24 Years1113 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesIntroduction I was the first African-American justice of the Supreme Court, and served for 24 years. I once said, Ã¢â¬Å"None of us got here by solely pulling ourselves up by our bootstraps. We got here because somebody bent down and help us pick up our bootstraps.Ã¢â¬ I was a civil rights activist, attorney, and judge. I argued and won a variety of cases to end many forms of legalized racism that helped to inspire the American Civil Rights Movement. Some people say that I was instrumental in ending legalRead MoreRichard Wright s Black Boy1310 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesto succeed he needed to move. He went from Arkansas to Chicago during The Great Migration of Blacks from the South to the North. At his school he met Harry H. Pace, president of Supreme Liberty Life Insurance and ever since that day he knew he wanted to graduate and go into business. Ã¢â¬Å"Johnson becomes editor of Supreme s monthly newspaper,Ã¢â¬ (Kinnon 3). At one point he was interested in buying a lot or an area of land in downtown Chicago but because of his race he was refused the option. The determinationRead MoreThe Civil Rights Movement : Thurgood Marshall Law1501 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagestrail for the Civil Rights Movement from two sides of the American Legal System, both as a lawyer, and as a Justice of the Supreme Court. MarshallÃ¢â¬â¢s initial rise to fame came as a result of his success as the head lawyer for the Brown family in Brown vs. The Board of Education. Later, Marshall was appointed to the Supreme Court, making him the first ever African American Supreme Court Justice in American history. Overall, MarshallÃ¢â¬â¢s impact as a lawyer, a judge, and an activist, was essential to the
Posted by Jenna Loftus at 2:33 PM
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Discuss about the Web 2.0 and Green ICT. Answer: Introduction: Green ICT is the need of the current era in order to maintain the balance of the ecosystem and Web 2.0 developments have proved to be of a great aid in the process. However, there are certain issues that have been identified in the application of Green ICT with Web 2.0. The first and the foremost challenge are in terms of making a successful shift from traditional web development processes towards Web 2.0 in collaboration with the Green ICT. There are various changes that get introduced with the same in terms of organizational policies and operations that emerge as a challenge. It has been observed that the organizations find it difficult to move from the ordered mode of implementation to the newer processes (Kazlauskas, 2009). Also, the employees show resistance towards the change that impacts the productivity and efficiency levels. Another major challenge that has been encountered in relation with Web 2.0 and Green ICT practices is in terms of the skills that are required for the s ame. There are organizations that have the objective to adopt the green ICT practices in all of their development activities but do not have the adequate skills and strategy for the same. Energy efficient practices have still not been included in a number of ICT and Web 2.0 training sessions which become a major cause of the lack of expertise. There are also increased security risks in the world of web and the same has impacted Web 2.0 development as well. The occurrence of such an attack or risk also brings down the progress in terms of Green ICT (Cepis, 2011). References Cepis, (2011). Green ICT: Trends and Challenges. [online] Available at: https://www.cepis.org/upgrade/media/FULL_2011_42.pdf [Accessed 23 Nov. 2016]. Kazlauskas, A. (2009). Web 2.0 Solutions to Wicked Climate Change Problems. [online] Available at: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/4737/5a3a314bbe025c27d8e547e511237ebe9b24.pdf [Accessed 23 Nov. 2016].
Posted by Jenna Loftus at 3:33 PM
Saturday, April 4, 2020
Namaz has been made compulsory for Muslims 5 times daily the five timesÃ . Some things which are considered necessary before performing Namaz and also become the cultural norm of Pakistan are jaye namaz (prayer mat), tashbeeh, hijab, topi (prayer cap). Hijab and prayer cap are essential or religious obligation for namaz but prayer mat and tashbeeh are cultural norms of Pakistan. Here we will be discussing all of them in aspect of Pakistan: Jaye namaz The place of prayer is required to be free from dirt, as Muslims prostrate themselves during prayer with their hands, Knees, toes, forehead and nose coming into contact with the ground. To ensure this cleanliness Muslims use a small prayer mat for prayer. Structure/style: A prayer rug is characterized by a niche at one end, representing the place in every mosque, which directs or points the worshipper towards Mecca. The prayer mat is traditionally woven with a rectangular design, made asymmetrical by the niche at the head end. We will write a custom essay sample on Namaz Kit or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Within the rectangle one usually finds images of Islamic symbols and architecture. Decorations not only are important but also have a deep sense of value in the design of the prayer rug. When praying, the niche at the top of the mat must be pointed to the Islamic center for prayer, Mecca. In most tribal and village weavings the Jaye namaz is more angular in nature while the formal or city Jaye namaz can be very ornate and flowing in design. In the last 100 years is has become more common to see larger size Jaye namaz woven using the directional prayer rug motifs. Many jaye namaz also show one or moreÃ mosque lamps, a reference to the VerseÃ in theÃ QurÃ¢â¬â¢an. SpecificÃ mosquesÃ are sometimes shown; some of the most popular examples include the mosques in Mecca,Ã Medina, and especiallyÃ Jerusalem. Decorations not only play a role in imagery but serve the worshipper as aids to memory. Some of the examples include a comb and pitcher, which is a reminder for Muslims to wash their hands and for men to comb their hair before performing prayer. Another important use for decorations is to aid newly-converted Muslims by stitching decorative hands on the prayer mat where the hands should be placed when performing prayer. The size of jaye namaz are varying but the one mentioned a lot is: Ã¢â¬Å"Ã Typical prayer rug sizes are approximately 2. 5Ã ft ? 4Ã ft (0. 76Ã m ? 1. 2Ã m) 4Ã ft ? 6Ã ft (1. 2Ã m ? 1. 8Ã m). Purpose:-Although prayer mats to kneel on are not compulsory they are way of making sure you are kneeling on a clean space. Any mat will do but mats in Pakistan have geometrical design or pictures of famous mosques. They never have design including living things or representation of God, angels or the prophets. When not in use they are folded up and put away. Th ey not used for walking on as fireside rugs or general room decoration. Types of prayer mats by texture: Leather and wood: Despite from stone leather and wooden pieces are also used for prayer purpose in pakistan minorly. They are also shaped like stone. Leather is sometimes colored or preserved with vegetable oil. Wooden blocks are used for prayer and kept upright to wall after offering prayer. Wooden blocks are also colored. Stone: At the beginning when people didnÃ¢â¬â¢t find cloth or any other stuff to ensure cleanliness of their place they fixed a solid stone in the corner of the home. The stone is often 1. 5 meter long and rectangular in shape. Sometimes the front end of the stone crushed to make a pointed end. The stone may be plain or have devotional phrases impressed in its surface or the plain surface stone is discovered or made from big rocks. People cover them either with leaves or anything available to make sure cleanliness. Ã¢â¬Å"These plaques are periodically washed by their owners and, due to their propensity to dissolve, may be reconstituted by them. Ã¢â¬ If the stone is not solid it can be destructed with time so people usually discover solid stone or rebuild it after some time. Chitai: In pakistan there is trend of offering prayer with in group called jammat behind the imam. chitai or mat rolls are laid on the ground and Muslim stand side by side to offer prayer. These mat rolls are made from grass, date leaves or now a days plastic. Mat rolls are long carpets of rectangular shape with mihrab printed on them. These mihrabs are individually like prayer mat or the jaye namaz but collectively they form a chitai. Some chitai are also made for individual purpose. Wooden beds: Small wooden beds are made for namaz offering purpose. These are same like normal beds. The Prayer stand on the backend of the bed facing back of bed. In Islam when Muslim is offering prayer if somebody passes in front of him his namaz will be considered makruh so small hurdles are placed in front of namazi. To compete this problem these wooden beds were introduced because namazi will be facing the back of the bed and any one can pass easily in front of namazi and no extra hurdle need to be placed. Carpet stuff: Now a dayÃ¢â¬â¢s most common used for jaye namaz purpose is carpet stuff. Weavers make prayer mats from wool, camel fur, goat hair and silk. They wash and dye the materials, then them for six weeks before weaving. They choose materials for their strength and durability; many prayer mats last several generations. Weavers dye the wool with vegetable pigments from recipes handed down from generation to generation. Weavers decorate prayer mats with geometric designs and small stylized flowers and plants because Islam forbids any idolization. Detailed geometric borders with plain centers are featured in plain prayer mat designs, but many are far more lavish. They feature stylized flower motifs and geometric patterns in borders and forming the mihrab. The mihrab is the place where the Muslim places his head when he is kneeling in prayer. It represents the doorway of the revered sacred mosque in Mecca. Tribes and villagers often make mats famous for their floral designs, and many old prayer mats are valuable collectors items. Hijab If we look at the meaning of the word Hijab in the dictionary we learn that the word means veil, screen, covering or curtain. Hijab literally means Ã¢â¬Å"screenÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"curtainÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"partitionÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"concealment. Ã¢â¬ In the verb form, it means Ã¢â¬Å"to conceal oneselfÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"hide from the view. Ã¢â¬ In the ShariÃ¢â¬Ëa, it means to cover, conceal or hide oneself from view of those men with whom marriage is or may become permissible. Hijab for both men and women: The Hadith also includes rules for dressing. Both men and women are directed to cover themselves when they are in public areas. For men, following hijab means that the body should be covered at a minimum from the navel to the knees in loose, opaque clothing. Some interpretations of the Hadith suggest that the covering should be longer, from the navel to the ankles. All agree that the modest covering should be worn at all times, including prayer. Types of Hijab: Some Muslims interpret hijab as a minimal covering of the face and body, while others believe that hijab requires a complete securement of the entire body in opaque garments. More strict interpretations of hijab include an understanding that the face should be covered as well. Square scarf: The most commonly worn is a square scarf that covers the head and neck but leaves the face clear. Al-Amira: The al-amira is a two piece veil. It consists of a close fitting cap and an accompanying scarf. Shayla: The shayla is a long, rectangular scarf. It is wrapped around the head and tucked or pinned in place. Khimar: The Khimar is a cap-like veil that hangs down to just down the waist. It covers the hairs, neck and shoulders completely, but leaves the face clear. Chador: The chador is a full body cloak. It is often accompanied by a smaller headscarf underneath. Chador is mostly viewed in rural areas of balochistan and Punjab. Nikab: The Nikab is a veil for the face that leaves the area around the eyes clear. It is the most common type of hijab practiced in Pakistan. Burqa: The Burqa is the most concealing of all Islamic veils. It covers entire face and the body. Burqa is practiced mostly in kpk. Tasbeeh Tasbeeh? in its literary meaning is Glorification?. The Holy Qur? aan says, Ã¢â¬Å"Whatever is in the heavens and the earth glorifies Allah S. W. T. Ã¢â¬ I would like to share some knowledge in regard to realities of Tasbeeh. In order to understand the origins, significance, and importance of Tasbeeh e Fatima (S. A). TasbeehÃ ( ) is a form ofÃ dhikrÃ that involves the repetitive utterances of short sentences glorifyingÃ God, inÃ Islam. To keep track of counting either theÃ phalangesÃ of the right hand or aÃ misbahaÃ is used. The tasbih is similar to theÃ prayer ropeÃ of theÃ Eastern ChurchÃ and theÃ rosaryÃ in theÃ Roman Catholic Church. It is stated that one who recites this Tasbeeh after Namaaz gets the Sawaab of one thousand Rak? at. Imaam Ja? afer Saadiq A. S. aid that whoever is punctual in reciting this Tasbeeh shall never become one amongst the unfortunates. Tasbeeh is taken as reciting GodÃ¢â¬â¢s name on beads. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s also called Tasbeeh Fatima(Ra), since there is a hadees that he advised her so. People normally use a 100 bead Tasbeeh, but some use a 1000 one. Some do on millions of seeds or grain. They keep uttering some Arabic words without knowing the mean ing, lips moving and fingers on beads and think it is a great obedience. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s not only Muslims, other religions also have adopted this practice, or vice versa. . But Tasbeeh means to perform as ordered or to obey God. Everything, living or material is doing tasbeeh, means doing their assigned jobs. Ã¢â¬Å"TasbeehÃ of Allah ( ? )Ã is to declare His perfection and to glorify HimÃ by removing any fault, deficiency, weakness or similarity to creationÃ from Him. Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Whatever is in the heavens and earth exalts Allah , and He is the Exalted in Might, the Wise. Ã¢â¬ [Al-Quran-Surat Al-HadidÃ (The Iron):01]Ã Ã¢â¬ . Structure and Style: Tasbih are most commonly made of various stones or woodenÃ bead, but also of olive seeds, ivory, amber, pearls or plastic. Stone beads (mineral and animal based) are made of; carnelian, amber, tortoiseshell, glass, meerschaum, ivory, pearl, coral, coconut, pebble, mother of-pearl, jade, rhino horn, etc. whereas wooden beads are made of; ebony, agalloch, rosewood, olive wood, etc. Besides 99 beads, tasbih also consists of: the nisane, a disc which separates each 33 beads, the pul, a small bead that marks the seventh position, the tassel, which is a long piece marking the beginning of the string, and the tepelik at the top of the tassel. In 33 bead tasbih, nisane separates 11 beads and there is no pul. . Method of Tasbeeh: Two methods of keeping count of Tasbeeh are generally employed. They are: 1) Tasbeeh or Rosary 2) Joints of the fingers Canonical form Tasbih of Fatima: 1. SubhanAllahÃ ( ) (Glory be toÃ Allah) Ã¢â¬â repeated 33 times. 2. AlhamdulillahÃ ( ) (Praise be toÃ Allah) Ã¢â¬â repeated 33 times. 3. AllahuakbarÃ ( ) (AllahÃ is the Greatest) Ã¢â¬â repeated 34 times. 4. Ã¢â¬ Å"Laa Ilaaha IllallaahÃ¢â¬ once. Ã¢â¬ . Benefits of Tasbih: There are many benefits of a taseeh, if one seriously recites it, it will give incredible outcomes both in this world and the hereafter. Some of the advantages of tasbeeh e Fatima includes increase in sustenance, deliverance from misfortunes, forgiveness of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s sins, one becomes worthy of paradise, protection from tragedies and one receives gift from the angels. One should recite this tasbeeh after every prayer and before going to sleep. One can also recite a tasbeeh of astaghfirullah to seek forgiveness from the Lord. It is highly recommended to recite the tasbeeh of seeking forgiveness from Allah. Some common ways of remembering Allah after prayers is also highly recommended. Authentic Hades states that one who is regular reciter of this tasbeeh shall be considered the one who has remembered Allah S. W. T. the most. Imam Muhammad Baqir A. S. said that Whoever recites this Tasbeeh and at the end beseeches Allah S. W. T. for forgiveness he shall be surely forgiven. Numerically there are only one hundred holy words but in the scale of Deeds it will be considered to be one thousand. This Tasbeeh-e-Fatima Zahra S. A. keeps Shaytaan away from us and makes our Creator to be pleased with us. Imaam Ja? afer Saadiq A. S. aid that whoever recites this Tasbeeh after Wajib Namaaz his/her sins shall be forgiven even Before he/she steps out of the place of prayers and shall be rewarded Jannat. He also said it to be better than a thousand Rak at prayers. Namaz is like a beautiful flower while Tasbeeh-e-Fatima S. A. is a fragrance to that flowerÃ¢â¬ . Critical Analysis Is namaz kit necessary for Namaz? Not necessarily jaye namaz and tashbeeh Ã¢â¬Å"The Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said in hadith that all place of prayer for him and his people may pray anywhere they find themselves at times of prayerÃ¢â¬ . Prayer rugs are not universally used by Muslims, nor specifically required in Islam. But they have become a traditional way for many Pakistanis to ensure the cleanliness of their place of prayer, and to create an isolated space to concentrate in prayer. Same for tashbeeh which is also not necessary for performing namaz but become a traditional part of Pakistani culture to perform tashbeeh. Apart from jaye namaz and tashbeeh hijab is necessary obligation to perform because namaz and here we are taking hijab for covering face and all body except hand, feet and face. It is also necessary to fold jaye namaz in proper manner that the head side of jaye namaz never come on foot side if it do it is considered a disrespectful thing, Many muftis are saying donÃ¢â¬â¢t read namaz on the jaye namaz with khana kabha or masjid print on it, better hang that on wall as decoration and read namaz on plain jay e namaz, because years gone people read namaz on the jay e namaz got khana kabha on it so itÃ¢â¬â¢s difficult to tell all the only way is if they donÃ¢â¬â¢t print them, they can make and sell wall hanging more wide and the jaye namaz simple. The reason the Ulema have said you shouldnt pray on a jay namaz with a masjid on it is on the basis of respect. You can read on it however you must make sure that your feet donÃ¢â¬â¢t be placed on top of the masjid otherwise you will get gunnah. same case is with tashbeeh and hijab donÃ¢â¬â¢t make tashbeeh and hijab with printed scared palces because can often break and beads of it may roll in our feet and we will earn gunnah. Hijab also have restriction because the girl wearing hijab may torn,lose or wear that printed hijab in uncleanliness time. There has been much debate over hijab in the Muslim and non-Muslim world. Some critics feel that hijab is very restrictive for women, while some Muslim women say they actually feel more comfortable in hijab. Does Islamic dress imply that women are submissive or inferior to men? Modest clothing is worn in obedience to our Creator and has nothing to do with submission to men. Hijab is actually the purity of human being and the soul as well. In Quran, Allah says: Ã¢â¬Å" And when you ask them( the ProphetÃ¢â¬â¢s wives) for anything you want, ask them from behind a screen, that is purer for your hearts and their hearts. Ã¢â¬ Quran (33:53) Hijab is reffered as a shield according to one hadith. The Prophet (S. A. W. W. ) says: Ã¢â¬Å" Allah , most high, He loves Haya and sittrÃ¢â¬ (Abu Dawod, An-Nissaee) At another time, The Prophet (S. A. W. W. ) says: Each religion has morality and the morality of islam is HayaÃ¢â¬ (Imam Maalik) Some women argue that modesty is a state of mind and has nothing to do with clothing. When talking about modesty we should talk about the purpose of clothing. Modesty is also humility. A modest woman is a humble woman and in a way our clothes should reflect that. When I want respect I act like I deserve that respect and I dress like it too. Dressing for pleasure of Almighty Allah. What is written in the QurÃ¢â¬â¢an and in hadiths cannot be deniedthat Muslim women must cover up. Woman, as taught by Islam since the light of Prophethood, is a precious and most valuable treasure of this world. She is to be protected, honoured and valued. Like a precious stone, her beauty should be respected, hidden in security and safety so as not to be abused by unworthy eyes. Hijab is empowerment for the Muslim woman. It is her right to preserve her modesty, to guard herself from the corruption of society. The veil or Hijab is that distinctive symbol which identifies her as a woman of God; humble, modest.. When discussing Hijab, the question often arises; why is emphasis for covering up placed upon the women instead of the men? Firstly, it should be noted that men definitely have a degree of Hijab to observe. In addition to modest clothing and following the ways of the noble Sunnah, men must also lower their gaze and protect themselves from their desires in regards to women. This is commanded upon them in the QurÃ¢â¬â¢anic verse: Ã¢â¬Å"Say to the believing men that they should lower their gaze and guard their modesty: that will make for greater purity for them. And Allah is well acquainted with all that they do. [QurÃ¢â¬â¢an 24:30] The first glance is allowed however the second glance is not. This means that a man may look once but he should then turn away: The Beloved Messenger of Allah said to his cousin Sayyidina Ali,Ã¢â¬Å"O Ali, do not follow a glance with another, for you will be forgiven for the first, but not for the second. Ã¢â¬ [Tirmidhi, Hadith no. 2701] Men must lowe r their gaze and avoid looking at women at all times, except for sound and legitimate purposes, namely testimony, medical treatment, proposing marriage, buying a slave girl, buying and selling, etc. In these cases it is permitted to look only as much as is necessary and no more. And Allah knows best. Y tashbeeh is important to held person can recite tashbeeh without tashbeeh? The most obvious reason is remembrance. When person are sitting alone or in gathering they kept on randomly thinking or gossiping respectively but if they are holding a tashbeeh they might use it in a productive way. Conclusion People of Pakistan respect namaz kit as sacred thing an place them on clean or high place. They are not just considered to perform their primary obligation instead they are considered itself as a part of the obligation which is not necessary. They also wash them carefully and separately. It is disrespectful for one to place a namaz kit in a dirty location or throw them around in a disrespectful manner. Manufacturing namaz kit is important industry in pakistan and pakistan also export namaz kit to other muslim countries including Saudi Arabia. Pakistani also buy jaye namaz, tashbeeh and hijab from Saudi Arabia when they go there to perform Hajj or Umra. They use these by their own and also gift to their relatives. The Hijab is a protection and for of purity for both genders and is ruled according to the nature of each. Since woman is made naturally soft-hearted, modest and humble, she is asked to cover up and protect herself; and since man is created weak, he is taught to exercise self-restraint. If both genders fulfil their individual duties, their faith is protected and their purity is preserved. Women should not be the moon which everyone sees uncovered, but women should be the sun which makes everyone eyes bow down before seeing it. Let not the opinions of man interfere with the directions given to you by Allah. Precious things are always kept covered for their protection muslimahs are the pearls of this ummah and thatÃ¢â¬â¢s why weÃ¢â¬â¢ve been gifted hijab Bibliography 1. Voice of SystemÃ By Ahmed Hulusi page no 18 publishing year 1999 published by Kitsan, Istanbul,Turkey 2. Pakistan Kit by Cornell University South Asia Program page no 40 3. http://www. prayerrugs. com/ accessed on 7th May, 2013 4. Islam by Ruqaiyyah Waris Maqsood page no 56 publishing year 1995 publishing house Maetu cromo Spain 5. http://www. tradekey. com. pk/prayer-mats. htm acessed on 4th May ,2013 6. Photopack Artefacts for Worship By Gill Rose, David Rose page no 68 publishing year2003 published by Folens Limited,Itlay 7. ttp://www. ignitumtoday. com/2012/06/06/lets-have-a-talk/, access date: 16th May,2013 8. http://baharemadinah. com/basics-of-religion/128-modesty-and-the-hijab, access date: 16th May,2013 9. Muhammad ismail memon madani (September 28th 1996), hijab The Islamic Commandments of Hijab, access date: 17th May,2013 10. Abdul Aziz Addwesh , The hijab of muslim women [ PDF document], Retrieved http://www. sunniport. com/masabih/showthread. php? t=78 83 11. from: http://www. sultan. org/books/hijab. pdf , access date: 19th May,2013 12. Abu Awwad (oct,2007) , The Hijab [ PPT document], Retrieved from: http://www. slideshare. net/moh12/the-hijab-why, access date: 6th May,2013 13. David Ripley (2010), Headscarves [ PPT document], Retrieved from: http://www. slideshare. net , access date: 10th May,2013 14. http://www. sunniforum. com/forum/showthread. php? 12573-Tasbih-for-Fatima-Az-Zahra-(ra) ,access date: 16th May,2013 15. http://www. 123muslim. com/hadith/5773-collection-various-forms-dhikr-tasbih-sunnah. html 16. Mufti Muhammad Faiz Ahmed Owaisi Damat Barkat-u-hum-Aalia,tasbeeh ki raye, Retrieved from: http://www. ultan. org/books/hijab. pdf , access date: 25th March,2013 17. Photopack Artefacts for Worship By Gill Rose Retrieved from: http://www. sultan. org/books/hijab. pdf , access date: 17th March,2013 [ 1 ]. Voice of SystemÃ By Ahmed Hulusi [ 2 ]. Pakistan Kit by Cornell University South Asia Program [ 3 ]. http://www. prayerrugs. com/ [ 4 ]. http://www. loupiote. com/photos/3728069433. shtml [ 5 ]. Islam by Ruqaiyyah Waris Maqsood [ 6 ]. http://www. tradekey. com. pk/prayer-mats. htm [ 7 ]. Al Mawrid:- A Modern Arabic English Dictionary, 1992 p. 453 [ 8 ]. David Ripley (2010), Headscarves [ PPT document], Retrieved from: http://www. slideshare. net [ 9 ]. Photopack Artefacts for Worship By Gill Rose [ 10 ]. Photopack Artefacts for Worship By Gill Rose [ 11 ]. Photopack Artefacts for Worship By Gill Rose [ 12 ]. Photopack Artefacts for Worship By Gill Rose [ 13 ]. Photopack Artefacts for Worship By Gill Rose [ 14 ]. http://www. ignitumtoday. com/2012/06/06/lets-have-a-talk/ [ 15 ]. http://baharemadinah. com/basics-of-religion/128-modesty-and-the-hijab
Posted by Jenna Loftus at 3:27 AM
Sunday, March 8, 2020
How to Ride the Euphemistic Treadmill How to Ride the Euphemistic Treadmill How to Ride the Euphemistic Treadmill By Mark Nichol How do you refer to a person or people with characteristics outside the perceived norm? Why should you do so at all? Describing a person as belonging to a certain race or ethnic group or having a physical or mental disability, or commenting on a provocative or embarrassing topic, is a challenge on more than one level. Linguist and cognitive science Steven Pinker has called the first level of challenge Ã¢â¬Å"the euphemistic treadmill,Ã¢â¬ a form of pejoration (a shift of meaning to a negative connotation or a less sophisticated sense) or semantic change (an alteration of meaning). A word caught on the euphemistic treadmill is one that replaced an offensive or pejorative term but has itself become unfavorable. For example, the primary mode of reference to people in the United States of relatively recent African extraction (I employ modifiers here because all humans ultimately derive from Africa) has transformed repeatedly through recent history. Even now, no one term is universally preferred: Ã¢â¬Å"African AmericanÃ¢â¬ and black (or Black) seem to be equally popular, and many publications use the terms interchangeably, but the otherwise obsolete (and offensive) term colored persists as well in the name of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, and some black people use the otherwise inexcusable word nigger in a neutral manner but are insulted if someone of another race utters it. In terms of condition rather than color, handicapped supplanted crippled as a description supposedly more respectful of those described, but many people, both members of that class and others, consider handicapped itself insulting because it, like crippled, emphasizes that people so described do not have the capabilities other people possess. (Similarly, writers are urged to avoid connotations of victimization: Write Ã¢â¬Å"Jones uses a wheelchair,Ã¢â¬ for example, rather than Ã¢â¬Å"Jones is bound to a wheelchair.Ã¢â¬ ) A more recent trend has been to employ a people-first perspective, in which someone is described as Ã¢â¬Å"a person with disabilities,Ã¢â¬ rather than Ã¢â¬Å"a disabled person,Ã¢â¬ though some groups and movements reject this approach as a misguided politically correct complication. Why do these subjects have to be so complicated? WeÃ¢â¬â¢re all genetic mongrels anyway, so why even refer to oneÃ¢â¬â¢s race or ethnic origin? And why is it considered appropriate to comment on a personÃ¢â¬â¢s physical or mental condition at all? Of course, such descriptions are not always necessary, and they should be omitted when theyÃ¢â¬â¢re irrelevant. But, for better or worse, ethnic identity and physical or mental ability is often pertinent to a discussion. So, weÃ¢â¬â¢re back to where we started how should a writer describe an individual or a community or group when such a detail is warranted? If youÃ¢â¬â¢re writing for a specific publication or for an organization, investigate whether it has a pertinent style or policy. If the subject matter is dealt with in a style guide or a handbook (for example, the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association), use that resource as a guide. Otherwise, if your subject is an individual, or the content describes an individual, ask that person. If that approach is not feasible, search the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s own documentation (such as a personal website or a blog on which the person describes himself or herself). In the case of a community or a group, seek guidance from a representative or, again, research original documentation for example, a print or online publication. Whatever you do, if itÃ¢â¬â¢s appropriate, integrate into your content as seamlessly as possible your rationale for using potentially controversial or less-than-universal terminology. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Style category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:Program vs. Programme50 Idioms About Arms, Hands, and FingersOne Scissor?
Posted by Jenna Loftus at 12:22 PM
Friday, February 21, 2020
PERSONAL STATMENT for BUJASSIM - Essay Example The overall consequence of self-awareness is improved productivity at work because of the understanding of ability to perform required tasks and to identify areas to improve on then make the improvements From the feedback, I have learnt that I am not as precise as I should. Some of my illustrations are vague and require more elaboration so as to make points in a clear and unequivocal manner. Even though I may be qualified for a job, someone may beat me to it because I do not present my skills well enough and miss the important details. It is my responsibility to ensure that whenever I present my skills, I must include the most relevant and provide sufficient details such that no questions are raised due to ambiguities created by me. Providing better evidence entail the use of better illustrations than I used initial. These examples must be related to the subject matter and explain all its relevant features. One perspective that is useful to assume is the viewpoint of the reader. After completion of the piece of work, I must look at it as the intended audience would have done. If I do so, I will be able to detect unconvincing parts and change them accordingly. In addition, I must go through the work upon completion to ensure that the language used is suitable and captures what is intended. Lastly, I can also focus on what is relevant so that time is not wasted on what is not needed as it will only serve to demonstrate a lack of keenness on my part. I can enhance my employability by stating clearly what my strong points are whenever I present myself for an employment opportunity. Since each job is unique in its requirements, I must align my qualifications and experience to match what the employer is looking to get from a particular job opportunity. Being lucid and cogent about my values, commitment to work and the desire to help achieve job objectives as well as personal goals is bound to paint a picture of an employee
Posted by Jenna Loftus at 2:49 AM
Wednesday, February 5, 2020
Poem - Essay Example DickinsonÃ¢â¬â¢s use of symbolism and personification in describing her journey, or rather, her encounter with death helps bring out her point of view. DickinsonÃ¢â¬â¢s use of symbolism shows during the drive in the chariot which symbolizes her journey from the living to the dead. She passes from childhood (Ã¢â¬Å"We passed the school, where Children stroveÃ¢â¬ ) to maturity (Ã¢â¬Å"We passed the Fields of Gazing GrainÃ¢â¬ ) then to her time of dying (Ã¢â¬Å"We passed the Setting SunÃ¢â¬ ) then eventually to her grave (Ã¢â¬Å"A Swelling of the GroundÃ¢â¬ ). Notably, there is the repetition of the word Ã¢â¬Å"passedÃ¢â¬ which brings out the theme of symbolism. In stanzas three and four, Dickinson uses the word four times as the carriage symbolically moves down the path of life from the children and the grain, which are both living to the time of transition, or death, the setting sun. From this point onwards, the time stops, and it is the sun that passes them. This shows that they passed out of time of the living into the time of eternity where only time can pass them. The transition starts as when the sun sets, and ever ything becomes dark thus welcoming the damp and cold of the night (Ã¢â¬Å"dew drew quivering and chill.Ã¢â¬ ) The use of personification in the poem occurs in two instances as Dickinson takes us through the drive with death. First, she personifies Death itself into a gentleman caller because she refers to him as a Ã¢â¬Ëhe,Ã¢â¬â¢ in stanzas 1 and 2 while the rest of the stanzas she uses Ã¢â¬ËweÃ¢â¬â¢ to show that two people are together. She also uses capital D when mentioning Death thus stressing the fact that Death is a name of a gentleman, and all names of people begin with a capital letter. Secondly, Dickinson personifies the setting sun when she refers to it as a Ã¢â¬ËheÃ¢â¬â¢ when she says Ã¢â¬Å"Or rather He passed Us.Ã¢â¬ In this case, she acknowledges the capability of the sun as a point of transition. In the
Posted by Jenna Loftus at 3:45 AM
Tuesday, January 28, 2020
The Methodology of Female Slavery: Jezebel and Mammy Talking about blacks slavery we have to admit, that female slaves had to cope with and face both: the myth of a woman and the myth of the Negro. It was a difficult situation for women as they were standing at the crossroads of two ideologies, which affected them. Whereas men could escape only the stereotype of the Negro, woman had to escape both stereotype of the Negro and stereotype of the woman at all. As a result both blacks and women were characterized as infantile, irresponsible, submissive and promiscuous. Moreover, in political and economical aspect they were dependent on white men. What more they have in common is that both groups were subservient, powerless in relations with white males. They were also considered to be a kind of outsiders and inferiors. Looking at the era of slavery we can point out two types of African-American women: Jezebel and Mammy. As far as the Mammys is concerned, we can think about Hattie McDaniel, the Mammy in Ã¢â¬Å"Gone with the WindÃ¢â¬ . What we see is overweight black woman dressed in a long robe, a head kerchief and a big smile which follows her all the time. In the American history, Mammy was a woman who took care of whites family, especially looking for their children. She was in charge of domestic management and a house servant. She has a strength, experience and willing to do her duties. She was the main house servant and other people were subordinated to her. Mammy was a woman who could do almost everything, and did it even better than anyone else could do. She was often indispensable. What is also important about Mammy, is that she was also a in-home psychologist who often had to serve as a friend and advisor. She was where white women could not be, including playing with children, cooking and cleaning. Most of us think of a Mammy as a maid, who had to work because of her slave status, but the truth is that she was more than that. Of course, she was doing all the things which maid usually does, but also she was like a family member, taking care of white familys personal issues. She was very protective, giving her care and love towards the white children. She was totally devoted to the family because she often did not have her own family and children. Also her interactions were limited due to her obligations. What is more Mammy normally was on the call at all hours, she almost did not have private time, she was often tired and exhausted, being under the scrutiny of the white family. There were some advantages for Mammy like leaving the plantation as waiting maid for their traveling mistresses, or learning to read and write by family members. Nowadays we can see the stereotype of Mammy in the movies or in the pictures, which show us fat, middle-aged, nonsexual and smiling black woman, but it is not how we should imagine and perceive Mammy. According to historical facts, they were not fat, because they did not eat a lot. They were rather young, they rarely passed the 50 limit. Furthermore, not always they were totally black, because they were very often daughters of women raped by white men. The sexual exploitation of black women by white men was unfortunately frequent situation during the antebellum period. In other words, black women were sexually exploited by rich whites, middle class whites, and poor whites. Sexual relations between blacks and whites whether consensual or rapes were taboo. However they occurred often. All black women and girls, regardless of their physical appearances, were vulnerable to being sexually assaulted by white men. Summing up, Mammy was really taking care of the children she was raising them and she was very important member of family. But we still have to point out that she was a slave and did not have much choice, so somehow she had to accept her fate. However if we compare Mammys duties with these of the field worker, we can admit that her situation was far way better. It was also less physically demanding. Comparing to the field worker Mammy could expect better treatment in terms of providing her with food, clothing, medical treatment and sometimes education. The Second type of black woman in times of slavery was Jezebel, who stood in the opposition of the Mammys image. Talking about Jezebel we should imagine young beautiful, sexual free, promiscuous woman, who was often governed by her libido. The perfect example of Jezebel was shown by actress Nina Mae McKinney in a movie Ã¢â¬Å"Hallelujah!Ã¢â¬ . In those days Jezebel completely stood in opposition not only to Mammy, but also to all white women who were portrayed as self respected with sexual purity. Jezebel was a woman who knew what she wanted, very seductive with lots of emotions and not ashamed of her sexuality. Black men after raping white women were castrated or hanged, whereas white men had no problems with law after raping black slave. Legally they could not do it so easily, because slave women were properties. White men often encouraged the slave women to have a sexual relation by giving them gifts. But also Jezabel made agreements with white men. Sometimes they had a choice to work on the field or to be a sexual attraction for a white male, what made her more independent than her hard working friends. Also black women agreed voluntarily for having sex with white men, because they knew that if they refused they could be forced to it and raped, beaten or even sold. By giving themselves to white masters they gained the chance for some advantages. If they were liked by them they were often awarded. This is one of the reasons why black women were called lust and promiscuous. Jezebel was the object of disdain, hate and envy from the side of white women. During those times white women were co vering all of they bodies with lots of clothes, because nudity was perceived as a lack of civility, morality and sexual restrain. They considered them to be immodest and sexually aberrant. As I have mentioned before, being Jezebel had many disadvantages, one of them was possibility of rape. As a result she often got pregnant. The owner benefited from this situation, because he had supply of next slaves. Sometimes slaves even got a prize for being pregnant, for example they were given a pig. Then according to those facts, we could call a Jezebel as a 18th and 19th century prostitute. Actually the truth is that this image continues till today. The half naked, pretty and hot image now looks good and contemporary African-American women very often want to be a Jezebel. However this image shows us not a slave and prostitute but an independent woman who is confident about her sexuality, her race and look. I think that nowadays the Jezebels image has replaced Mammys as the dominant image of black woman in pop culture. We can observe it in movies, video clips, even on the streets. Black women want to be Jezebel nowadays. They like to show sexual purity, talking about womens needs and sexual abilities. However some of them may even do not know about the origins of the Jezebel image. On the other hand I think that we can also find lots of Mammys images among black women. Except of what had been said above, Mammys were also presented in commercials. Mammy image was very often used to sell household items, food, detergents or beverages. She was presented as the overweight black woman, cooking or doing house-works and of course smiling. To sum up, there is no denying that the images and stereotypes of the slave women during the times of slavery definitely had an impact of the look and behavior of the contemporary African- American woman.
Posted by Jenna Loftus at 12:09 AM
Sunday, January 19, 2020
Positive Behavioral Supports and Interventions (PBIS) programs were developed to help children learn the valuable social and behavioral skills needed to be successful in school. Most of these interventions address teaching school-wide expectations and a shared vocabulary for reinforcing these expectations. Some students continue to have behavior problems and to create disruptions in the classroom. These students receive specialized interventions to improve behavior. The researcher's plan is to provide an intervention for students in the secondary level of PBIS. These student continue to struggle after they receive instruction in appropriate school behavior. Behavioral instruction alone is not effective for all students. In order to be successful at school children also need to have a positive attitude about themselves, caring relationships with adults, and the understanding that they have the capacity to learn. Unfortunately, many children do not have these things when they come to school. The researcher's aim to provide an intervention that helps to provide an ongoing positive relationship with a school staff member, create a safe environment for children to explore their feeling and discuss problems with a caring adult, and to creative opportunities that allow the students to be successful thereby increasing overall perceptions of self-efficacy. One potential intervention is involving families in behavioral interventions. Reinke, Splett, Robeson, and Offutt (2009) found that parental involvement in all levels of PBIS increases the effectiveness of interventions. The Family Check-up model combines school based PBIS interventions with family supports. This model serves to address home-based factors which have been shown in inf... ...Public Health Perspective. Psychology In The Schools, 46(1), 33-43. Sitler, H. (2009). Teaching with awareness: The hidden effects of trauma on learning. Clearing House, 82(3), 119-123. Sutherland, K. S., Conroy, M., Abrams, L., & Vo, A. (2010). Improving interactions between teachers and young children with problem behavior: A strengths-based approach. Exceptionality, 18(2), 70-81. Sutherland, K. S., & Oswald, D. (2005). The relationship between teacher and student behavior in classrooms for students with emotional and behavioral disorders: Transactional processes. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 14, 1Ã¢â¬â14. Wills, H., Kamps, D., Abbott, M., Bannister, H., & Kaufman, J. (2010). Classroom Observations and Effects of Reading Interventions for Students at Risk for Emotional and Behavioral Disorders. Behavioral Disorders, 35(2), 103-119.
Posted by Jenna Loftus at 8:31 PM
Saturday, January 11, 2020
Riordan Manufacturing needs to develop a formalized method for controlling all client information into one centralized client administration method. The first part of this plan will develop a modified administration plan that will include many critical elements; for example, suggestion of a plan in order to execute modifications during the coming year and an explanation of the assessment processes following the implementation of the modifications. The 2nd part of the plan will make reference to an exhaustive communication plan for the suggested modifications. A sample message communicating the plan to the company employees is also included. Riordan Manufacturing currently uses a bureaucratic structure based on formal power. This structure is designed with set rules and functions on how the business will operate daily. Their organizational chart describes how the organization is departmentalized by scope of work into functional areas. Each specialized department has a vice president a nd managers that control their operations. The major advantage of this type of functional departmentalization is efficiency gained from putting like specialists together (Robbins & Judge, 2013). The power and political structure could affect the employee behavior because all decisions must go up the ladder. For example, if a decision needs to be made about how a heart valve machine needs to be updated, the decision must be routed through proper authority, rather than being handled by the foreman. Another advantage of this structure is that there is direct communication between lower level managers and their supervisors; this provides effective leadership, vision, and communication throughout the ranks in the organization. The most appropriate and effective organizational structure for Riordan is departmentalization and formalization. With the planned change for a new customer information system, structure, organization, and good communication between departmentsÃ is necessary. This form is valuable when an organizationÃ¢â¬ â¢s customers are widely distributed geographically and have similar needs based on their location (Robbins & Judge, 2013). Most of the positions in the organizations are standardized, so each employee is placed in the correct department according to his or her abilities. Riordan Manufacturing has a separate department for each product they make, which is an example of departmentalization. Employees in a departmentalized and formalized organization have set rules to follow and are specialized to their department. Riordan Manufacturing employees are a diverse group that offers solutions in a diverse market. Each member is part of a team where each product made grows their total portfolio. RiordanÃ¢â¬â¢s culture is based on organic growth with innovation, although they are a bureaucratic organization. They are constantly looking for new products to innovate and expand in new areas without looking to cut costs to gain growth. Their characteristics include: ethical standards, innovative, and team building. The corporate culture of Riordan Manufacturing influences employee behavior by innovation and risk taking with an emphasis on team building. Riordan uses good communication and team orientation to keep their employees motivated. Some workers may become unwilling to cope with modification. Possible reasons may be the lack of knowledge regarding the modification, comfort, anxiety about being unsure, personal private views, job security, pressure from peers, clashes, and lack of confidence. Even though workers are being resistive, the administrators are intending to cope with the opposition and assist workers with the modification more efficiently. Administrators may apply the modification by conveying it clearly, being straightforward, and acknowledging their worries together while respecting workers. Administrators may provide support by meeting directly in regards to the modifications or by additional co aching. Administrators might place the resistive workers with employees or another company temporarily who are already using the modification. This can allow for administrators to make certain they have set some objectives to ensure the success of the modifications was worthwhile and advantageous. Modifications need constant and continuous quality improvements. During the 12 months, administrators must be sure that the modification they put in place continues to remain effective. Administrators can perform this by assigning reaction teams toÃ areas which are in danger, as well as continue to make contact with their workers via phone, email, direct contact, or memo. Safety precautions will also continue to be managed and improved. Staff and administration attitudes will remain optimistic, involving workers, caring for their views, ideas, and thoughts, continuing to provide training sessions, set objectives and goals, and encourage inspiration. Administrators may assess achievement by monitoring the effectiveness of the modification, organization numbers/sales, and ensuring workers are producing great results. In case the organization is failing or hasnÃ¢â¬â¢t seen any growth then they must adjust the modification. Communication Plan The best way to overcome the resistance to change is timely communication to employees. Managers should have meetings with employees, as necessary to discuss the changes. The reason for the changes should be conveyed in a way so employees will understand the necessity for the changes. Managers also need to make themselves available to address any concerns and to listen to feedback from employees. It is very important to listen to their concerns, and address them in a professional and compassionate manner. The manager needs to assert themselves as being calm and professional, while conveying the change and listening to concerns of the employees. Along with meetings, regular emails and memos should be sent to all employees to inform them in a formal manner of the changes that need to take place. It may be prudent to appoint a few reactionary team members to assist the employees with the new procedures. Some employees should be selected to join the reactionary team to instill a sense of ownership into the changes. If a written communication method was to be utilized there could be physical barriers to non-verbal communication. Not being able to see the non-verbal cues, gestures, posture and general body language can make communication less effective. To counter that, our preferred communication channel will be face-to-face to discuss anything that could be considered sensitive in nature. Jargon, abbreviations, and slanged terms for what is considered common items is commonly used in corporations; this can cause confusion for some whom may be less familiar. To ensure everyone has a firm grasp on the message being relayed, the use of these terms should be minimized in all formal communications. Email and Memo Message Valued Employees of Riordan Manufacturing: The organization decided to apply a client administration method that will permit you to easily monitor our clients. The administration knows that we have put enormous accountability on you to manage client info and wish to provide you with the methods to do this job more efficiently. This info might be more effective when we keep it in a uniformed style and saved in a convenient location. By applying this method we will be allowing the info to be easily available to all workers and will streamline searching methods. We know that this info, if not saved correctly will get lost, and we donÃ¢â¬â¢t want to jeopardize the client associations which you have worked so hard to maintain. Formalized training will be given to all workers prior to the launch of this method. Our objective is to make sure that you are happy and capable of using the latest program before itÃ¢â¬â¢s put into use. We have created a formalized coaching agenda for following week to make sure everybody has had time to see, work, and know the program. We hope that this may be applied on Monday March 30th, 2015. Administration knows that understanding the latest method is a difficult task, however we believe you will notice the advantage of this latest program. We thank you all for your hard work, persistence, and assistance in this matter. Please contact your immediate supervisor with any questions or problems. Thank You, Riordan Manufacturing Administration Conclusion The document has assisted in developing a modification administration plan for Riordan Manufacturing by deciding formalized and casual power structures of the company and their influence on the conduct of workers. It has additionally determined suitable company structures for this organization which will help in achieving the modifications. The document has described the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s tradition by identifying its features, and the possible impact of this tradition on the conduct of workers. Riordan must think about applying the specified modifications which are contained in the modification administration plan, and they must also apply the communication plan that will assist in implementing the modifications effectively. Reference Robbins, S. P., & Judge, T. A. (2013). Organizational behavior (15th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall.
Posted by Jenna Loftus at 4:55 PM
Friday, January 3, 2020
American Political Parties There have been many different political parties since the beginning of the American political system. A political party is made up of a group of people that share common goals and ideals, and these people work together to help elect people to offices that share these goals to represent them. Political parties work to try to control the government and their ultimate goal is to win as many elections and to gain as many offices as possible. During the time when the Constitution was being debated over the first two political parties surfaced in the United States, the Federalists, and the Anti-Federalists. After the Constitution was ratified the Anti-Federalists, led by Thomas Jefferson, became theÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦They called themselves National Republicans. The others stood for states rights, tariffs that were for revenue only, and an independent treasury. They took the name Democrats and elected Andrew Jackson to the Presidency in 1828 and 1832. Those who opposed Jac kson questioned his dissolution of the Bank of the United States, his internal improvement policies, his stand against South Carolina during the nullification crisis, and his policies on rotation in office and the spoils system. By the election of 1836 the National Republicans and others opposed to Jacksons policies had come together to form a new party, the Whigs. Since Jackson believed in a strong executive branch, those who opposed him referred to him as King Andrew, and the party got their name since Whigs were usually associated with opposing the King. The Democrats argued that the policies of the Whigs only benefited the upper class of people and imposed on states rights (www.encyclopedia.com). The Whigs lost to the Democrats that year, but in 1840 they succeeded in getting William Henry Harrison elected President. In 1844 the Whig candidate, Henry Clay, lost to James Polk, but in the next election Zachary Taylor won for the Whigs. The Whigs usually nominated a military he ro as their candidate in order to gain support. The Whigs supported a protective tariff, the creation of a new Bank of the United States, using the money from land sales to help states with internal improvements, and wereShow MoreRelatedEssay on American Political Parties1300 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesPolitical parties are critical structures in the modern society and universal phenomena in most democracies. In fact, they form major objects of intensive study as they are usually the centre of political and social power. They engage in most activities that are of significant consequence in the lives of citizens and link the common populace to the government. 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Posted by Jenna Loftus at 1:19 PM