Thursday, December 26, 2019

“Do not judge me by my successes, judge me by how many...

â€Å"Do not judge me by my successes, judge me by how many times I fell down and got back up again.† – Nelson Mandela. The quote by Nelson Mandela, sums up my personality,↠ a better way to say this? Explains the type of person I am? I am persistent. I do not give up, and I am determined to succeed in my academics. I have overcome a lot of struggles throughout the undergraduate years. Which lead to my falling, but over the years I picked myself back up and showed that I am able to succeed with my degree in Sociology. ***↠- how can I show this without saying I am determined to succeed. Transition: One of the greatest accomplishments I have achieved in Sociology, consisted of my research for the anthropology and sociology conference.†¦show more content†¦The research will investigate why the Greeks evaded speaking about Sappho. I will be working independently on the research project for nine months, with assistance from an English faculty member. In 2009 and 2010, I fell down with my academics, struggling to get back up. My father was ill and I had take care of him throughout 2009 and 2010. Because of his illness, this led me to gain an interest in Social Work. I wanted to show myself that I was able to succeed, and determined to receive a degree in Sociology. I took interested in low SES and diversity. Leading me to understand that I wanted to contribute to society in a hands-on way instead of researching. To understand social work, I registered for a Special Education class. The special education class was helpful, I was able to understand students with disabilities. I am a Student Ambassador for the Student Disabilities on campus. I work with students who have disabilities, mentoring the students throughout the year. ↠ should I add the student ambassador for special education? I really do not want to start out with My father was ill. ↠ should I do the sandwich approach? Place the positives on bottom before this and the illness in the middle? *** I need to place the W’s in the middle. But! Draw attention to the other positives!*** Transition: I found my niche for helping others while working at my internships. I was an intern at Needline, which is a food pantry helping the community with a low SES

Wednesday, December 18, 2019

African Americans African American And A Writer - 952 Words

Being African-American and a writer was rare to say back then since many people viewed African-Americans as uneducated and illiterate. Till this day many people still see African-Americans as less competent than any other person from a different race. Throughout history we’ve seen many accomplishments from African-Americans, either it being in sports or in the educational field. I’ve never doubted African-Americans on their capacity on what they can and cannot do. African-Americans have broken many barriers and stereotypes of what prejudice and racist people view them as. It’s nice to be alive knowing and seeing how currently our president, Barack Obama is an African-American who ran for presidency and won the two terms he ran for. I hope educators and leaders of this country start shifting their views on Africa-Americans and stop downgrading them because they are humans as well and they’re capable of doing anything they set their mind to. May educators mo tivate African-American students and help them achieve instead of giving up on them and not seeing their potential. Throughout this course I have learned many knowledge from African-American authors who have shown the world what they’re capable of and their creativity in their writings. Two authors who I found very interesting while reading their writings were Nat Turner and Malcolm X. The purpose of writing this paper is to compare and contrast Nat Turner and Malcolm X of what I have learned from their writings and as wellShow MoreRelated Adaptation of Modern African-American Writers814 Words   |  4 PagesAdaptation of Modern African-American Writers Modern writers learn from the past by reading works written by authors of that particular era. Contemporary African-American writers gain knowledge and insight into the horrendous and sometimes harmonious conditions that plagued Africans during slavery and the slave trade. By reading the actual words, thoughts, and feelings of these enslaved Africans, modern writers receive information from the perspective of the victimized. Lucille Cliftons slaveshipRead MoreJean Toomer- An African American Writer1188 Words   |  5 PagesJean Toomer was an African American writer. He was known as the leading American writer of the 1920s after he established his book Cane which inspired authors of the Harlem Renaissance. Jean Toomer was born on December 26, 1894 as Nathan Pinchback Toomer. His mother was the governor of Louisiana during Reconstruction and the first U.S. governor of African American descent (Jones 1). In 1985, Toomers father abandoned him and his mother. He forced them to live with his mother cruel father inRead MoreLangston Hughes, An African American Writer1823 Words   |  8 Pages Langston Hughes, an African American writer who interpreted to the world the black experience in the US and portrayed them with skill and insight, was born February 1st, 1902 into the home of the couple James and Carrie Hughes. Hughes mother attended college and had an artistic temperament. James Nathanial Hughes was a prosperous lawyer and rancher in Mexico who disliked the black poor and hated Negroes. On April 30, 1899, in Guthrie, Oklahoma, him and his wife Carrie were married and were pregnantRead MoreIn Their Novels, Many African American Writers Examine1929 Words   |  8 PagesIn their novels, many African American writers examine the conditions African American men and women live in as well as the choices they make as a result of their environment. In Native Son by Richard Wright, Bigger lives in an impoverished community and survives by committing robbery along with his friends. When Bigger gets, a job working for a rich white family, he accidentally murders his employerà ¢â‚¬â„¢s daughter and tries to cover his tracks. Invisible Man by Ralph Ellison tells the story of a blackRead MoreAfrican American Writer and Folklorist, Zora Neale Hurston 674 Words   |  3 PagesZora Neale Hurston which is famous African-American female Writer. She was also a folklorist and an anthropologist. She was very well educated. She was born in Notasulga, Alabama, on January 7, 1891. She was the fifth of eight children of John Hurston and Lucy pott Hurston. Her family moved to Eatonville, Florida when she was only three years old. In that time, many African-American moved from south to north and made a self-governing town because of the segregation. Eatonville was the first independentRead MoreLorraine Hansberry Is An African American Play Writer Who1583 Words   |  7 PagesLorraine Hansberry is an African American play writer who wrote the play â€Å"A Raisin in the Sun.† The Play highlights the lives of a lower-class Black American family in the 1950s living under racial segregation and oppression in Chicago. The title of the play was inspired from the poem â€Å"Harlem† by Langston Hughes. The poem questions â€Å"What happens to a dream deferred? Does it dry up like a raisin in the sun?† (Hansberry, 2013, p. 976). The protagonist, Walter Lee Younger, struggles internally withRead MoreTaking a Look at African American Poets827 Words   |  3 Pagesring bells when African American poets are mentioned? The legends who have influenced the path in which our ancestors fought hard to obtain in past generations. Booker T. Washington, Rita Dove, Richard Wright, Zora Hurston and Langston Hughes were a few among various highly influential poets during the 1900s. One of the biggest accomplishments of blacks today is that literature has developed from these African American poets. These individuals have set a tone and path to allow writers of any ethnicityRead Moreâ€Å"Whenever my environment had failed to support or nourish me, I had clutched at books...† ― Richard800 Words   |  4 PagesWright an African American author. This quote means that no matter what was placed in his way or what he lacked that others had he hung on to what he had and did what he could. And the more he read about the world, the more he longed to see it and make a permanent brea k from the Jim Crow South. I want my life to count for something, he told a friend. Richard Wright wanted to make a difference in the world and a difference he did make. Richard Wright was an important figure in American History becauseRead MoreFrederick Douglass, An African American Reformer, Abolitionist, And Writer1062 Words   |  5 Pages Frederick Douglass Frederick Douglass was an African American social reformer, abolitionist, and writer. Frederick Augustus Washington Bailey was born into slavery in Talbot County, Maryland on February1818 and he died on February 20, 1895. And was named by his mother, Harriet Bailey. But the exact date of Douglass birth is unknown. After escaping from slavery, he becomes a leader of the abolitionist movement. He know that as a living counterRead More The Political, Feminist, and Religious view of Frances E.W. Harper, Phllis Wheatley, and Alice Dunbar-Nelson2661 Words   |  11 Pagesd literature. Wheatley was considered a feminist icon because she was the first published African American female poet. However, her writing did not deal with feminist issues, rather, they focussed on religious and political themes. Unlike Wheatley, Harpers femi nist views are incorporated into her work. She uses religion as a method to express her political and social views. Dunbar-Nelson, a writer of all genres, brought together her personal beliefs and activism into many pieces of her work

Tuesday, December 10, 2019

Race and Revolution a Book Review free essay sample

This Is where Gary. B. Has tried to fill the vacuum by trying to bring to the foreground the sentiments present during the American Revolution towards Abolitionism and the counter points that shaped history. Book deals primarily with the strong Impulse of present In the Revolutionaries and the compromise, which helped deflect their attention from this social malice to concentrate on the seemingly more urgent matter of their liberation from colonial rule.Gary argues that generations of historians and antebellum had led to the collective camouflage of the abolitionist sentiments heightened in achievement during the consensus historians era. As he quotes Land in his works, tolerance towards the institution of slavery and intolerance toward the abolitionist movement are attitudes usually found together, for they support and supplement each other (Gary. B., 1990, page XVI) argues, that though a series of generations of Historians had argued to the contrary, there were some strong reasons to make it an opportune moment for the abolition of slavery. We will write a custom essay sample on Race and Revolution: a Book Review or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Though the consensus historians argue that the resistant south would have endangered the union if abolitionists were persistent, it can also be seen through argument hat the precariously placed south states would have gone along even on this contentious issue had there been more vigor and attention added to tackling Slavery.It was also, as claims the era with an over riding sentiment for ridding the American society of its long-standing ill news. Therefore Revolutionists missed their rendezvous with History in not being to carry out their humanitarian agenda of Slavery-abolition. Cites several aristocratic Leaders of the generation In his documents who argued that Slavery is a violation of both Justice and religion: that It Is dangerous to the community in which It prevails (Gary. B. , 1990, page 92).Equal rights movements also had their seeds In such arguments of the revolutionists who argued that as freedom Is unquestionably the birth-right of all mankind, of Africans as well as Europeans, to keep the former In a state of slavery Is a constant violation of that right, and therefore of Justice (Gary. B. , 1990, page 92) Though the Constitution conveniently side stepped the Issue of Slavery and excused Itself the need to revisit the profitable but highly nefarious trade In the Southern states In 1 808, the voices of dissent were recorded.There were vociferous opponents to this compromise formula who cited the basic tenet of American constitution -All men are born free and equal as being directly in opposition to slavery. Which support his claim of a strong current of Abolitionism present during the Revolution. What Race and Revolution achieves is to put the entire question of abolition of Slavery in historical perspective and avoid glossing over the issue, whic h had been widely practiced by Historians. Revolution was a step towards establishing arguably he most humanitarian constitution and social system in the world.

Monday, December 2, 2019

The Consequences Of Guns Essays - Gun Politics, Firearms

The Consequences of Guns The Consequences of Guns Handguns and other firearms have a long tradition in American civilization. The right to bear arms is an American right featured in the second Amendment of the Constitution. In the 18th century, when the constitution was written, times were different; there was a need for armed citizens to insure the safety of the society as a whole. Contemporarily the police department preserves the safety of society and the need for armed citizens is out of date. The founding fathers of the Constitution could presumably never imagine the horrendous outcome of their actions. Every year too many lives are claimed as the result of the American government's inability to fully face up to effects of the issue. Compared to other western countries that have considerably stricter gun control laws America is still viewed as "The Wild-Wild West". The growing gun related death toll in the U.S. has to come to a turning point. Stripping away the constitutional right to bear arms might have the effect that only criminals will have access to guns. It is important to understand that in a society where both criminals and law abiding citizens have access to guns the likeliness of an innocent person getting shot, when both parties are waving guns, is probably greater than if only criminals have guns. A ban on firearms might not be appealing as a short-term solution but it is important that people don't limit their thinking to their generation and not think about the safety of their children, grandchildren and the society people are creating today for them to live in. The main obstacle in removing firearms from citizens in the U.S. is the second Amendment of the Constitution. It reads: "A well regulated Militia being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms shall not be infringed." The second Amendment can be interpreted as every citizen right to bear arms. However the key word is "Militia", meaning soldiers or defenders of the State. In the late 18th century, when the Constitution was written, times were very different than those of contemporary America. People were scared of possible invasions from Native Americans, the English, and other nationalities. By "a well regulated Militia..." the founding fathers probably meant that citizens could have a muscot standing in the corner just in case anything would happen. Note that the writers of the Constitution added, "a well regulated..." in front of the word Militia. That would most likely reveal a controversy in writing this Amendment, some of the founding fathers might have foreseen the possibility of a misinterpretation of this Amendment. In the U.S. there are approximately 200 million privately owned guns, which is statistically close to a gun per person and places more than one gun per home on average (O'Donnell 771). In other words, guns are all around. This effects, without a doubt, the whole society structure and the citizens that live within its boundaries. The children that live within a gun infested society are going to suffer the consequences. In fact, kids between the ages 16 and 19 have the highest handgun victimization rate among all age groups (O'Donnel 771). It's not hard to understand why, since there are on average more than one gun per household, kids are likely to find firearm and in some cases even use it. In March 1998 two children, 11 and 13 years of age gunned down a total of 13 people in a school in Jonesboro, Arkansas. Of the 13, nine survived and five people, classmates and teacher, died as a result of the shooting (Liesen, Owens). One of the boys had taken two rifles from his grandfather. They positioned themselves about a 100 yards from the schoolyard and when the bell for recession sounded and people started to exit the school building the two boys opened fire. This is a horrendous event that proves that if guns are present within a household or within a family, odds are that kids will know about where they are kept and perhaps even be curious enough to actually use them. In October, 1997 a 16 year old boy shot and killed his girlfriend and her best friend while they were exiting a Mississippi school leaving six others wounded (Liesen, Owens). The spontaneity of young children and guns are a lethal combination as illustrated in these two examples. In a study made across high schools in Seattle, 47% of males and 22% of females reported that they had easy access to handguns and 11.4% were gun-owning males (O'Donnel

Wednesday, November 27, 2019

Sir Issac Newton Essays - Physics, Isaac Newton, Free Essays

Sir Issac Newton Essays - Physics, Isaac Newton, Free Essays Sir Issac Newton Sir Isaac Newton English mathematician and physicist Birth December 25, 1642 Death March 20, 1727 Place of Birth Woolsthorpe, England Known for Inventing, in part, the branch of mathematics now known as calculus Formulating the three laws of motion, which describe classical mechanics Proposing the theory of universal gravitation, which explains that all bodies are affected by the force called gravity Career 1661 Entered Trinity College, University of Cambridge 1665-1666 Developed what he called the fluxional method (now known as calculus) while living in seclusion to avoid the plague 1669-1701 Served as Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge 1687 Published his seminal work, Philosphiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy), which contained his three laws of motion and the theory of gravitation 1703-1727 Acted as president of the Royal Society, an organization that promotes the natural sciences 1704 Published Opticks (Optics), describing his theory that white light is a blend of different colors Did You Know? Newton was reluctant to share his research with other scientists for fear they would take credit for his discoveries. Newton instigated a Royal Society investigation to prove that he invented calculus before German mathematician Gottfried Wilhelm Liebniz, who had published the method first. In addition to science, Newton showed an interest in alchemy, mysticism, and theology. French writer Voltaire first recorded the story that a falling apple gave Newton the inspiration for his theory of gravitation. Voltaire cited Newton's niece as his source for the story. Bibliography none

Saturday, November 23, 2019

100 Basic English Key Words for ESL Students

100 Basic English Key Words for ESL Students This list provides a starting point for a basic understanding and fluency in the English language. The list of 850 words that was developed by Charles K. Ogden, and released in 1930 with the book: Basic English: A General Introduction with Rules and Grammar. For more information about this list, you can visit Odgens Basic English page. This list is an excellent starting point for building up a vocabulary which allows you to converse fluently in English. While this list is helpful for a strong beginning, more advanced vocabulary building will help you quickly improve your English. ​These vocabulary books will further help you build your vocabulary, especially at advanced levels. Teachers can use this list as a starting point for developing an essential vocabulary to their lessons. Teachers can also use this list along with other ideas on how to teach vocabulary on this site. Basic Verbs, Prepositions, Articles, Pronouns, etc. 1. come2. get3. give4. go5. keep6. let7. make8. put9. seem10. take 11. be12. do13. have14. say15. see16. send17. may18. will19. about20. across 21. after22. against23. among24. at25. before26. between27. by28. down29. from30. in 31. off32. on33. over34. through35. to36. under37. up38. with39. as40. for 41. of42. till43. than44. a45. the46. all47. any48. every49. no50. other 51. some52. such53. that54. this55. i56. he57. you58. who59. and60. because 61. but62. or63. if64. though65. while66. how67. when68. where69. why70. again 71. ever72. far73. forward74. here75. near76. now77. out78. still79. then80. there 81. together82. well83. almost84. enough85. even86. little87. much88. not89. only90. quite 91. so92. very93. tomorrow94. yesterday95. north96. south97. east98. west99. please100. yes

Thursday, November 21, 2019

The challenges of Interoperability Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

The challenges of Interoperability - Essay Example The migrating path for the Electronic Health Record (EHR) is a complex processing that needs efficient planning before a hospital administration plans to introduce interoperability for unifying its numerous operating systems. Being a CIO of a hospital with numerous computerized data entering systems, I would consider issues of higher expense, maintenance of the major operating system providing interoperability to other operating system of the hospital. There are other issues that a CIO of a healthcare organization must focus on. It could involve the training of the officials to enter the specifications of the records focusing on the type of nomenclatures. It should be noted that the continuous research and development in the field of health care has made it quite complicated for the transmission of interoperability migrating path. In this paper, I would take the position of a CIO of a health care organization to discuss the challenges of interoperability. I would stress on the signif icance of the migration path for the Electronic Health Record (EHR) acquisition and propose the managers of the organization to pass the clauses to take the acquisition underway by following the following criteria: Challenges of Interoperability: I. Electronic Health Records (EHR) Vendors: It is quite evident that a newer setup by connecting different leverage of information operating systems in the hospital for information management would need training of the professionals. Traditionally, it has been noted that EHR Vendors are a special approach for this purpose. By acquiring an EHR vendor, it would be much easier for the professionals to get used to the electronic record system. Once the EHR information systems are easily connected to numerous other data recording systems, they will automatically help the professionals to use it on a continuous basis. The operating technical training can actually act as a factor of making information systems successful (Amatayakul). II. Connectio n and Nomenclatures: I would suggest that the organization follows the information categories to make it certain for data delivery methods in order to connect to other departments. This will need coding and nomenclatures to be added. Considering numerous operating systems being used in the organization which I am working for, it comes as a challenge to actually share information among different departments, because each department has a different set of requirements for data specification. For instance, the operating system, namely Laboratory Information System (LIS) within the organization, is dealing with the information consumed by the internal departments. It has to be used externally by other health organizations as well to make sure the commutative statistics of the disease is observable. This will help in the process of providing assistance to the patients with technologically advanced interface (Amatayakul). By providing interoperability among the different operating systems used for entering disease specifications and health records, it will be much easier for the organization to link up the nursing and administration department. But it should be noted, that currently Healthcare Information System (HIS) of the organization is only linked with Laboratory Information System (LIS). Connecting it with other operating systems would be a step-wise process. Hospital Information Management (HIM) has quite a limited role in the organization in terms of its connectivity with other operating systems such as HIS. It is thus, equally important for me to allow this department to share the number of records under the coding and nomenclature (Amatayakul). III. Virtual Assistance: It has been noted that the installation of EHR in healthcare industry has ultimately led to failures, because the hospital administration and the medical professionals were not able to get along with the newer ways of reporting medical cases. Thus, I would suggest t

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

(Counseling) Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

(Counseling) - Essay Example Cultural sensitivity knows no negative differences or similarities, such as ‘better or worse,’ or ‘right and wrong.’ Each culture has what they know, regardless of what other cultures have, believe, or follow. Having cultural sensitivity means not finding one culture better than another, but finding them to all be the same in the sense that they have their similarities and differences. There are enough of these similarities and differences to keep cultures balanced with each other without making one more superior or inferior to others. Empathy, or understanding, can simply be described as â€Å"putting oneself into another’s shoes.† Empathy is not the same thing as pity or sympathy, but involves recognizing and entirely understanding what a person is thinking or feeling. Empathy is something that can take place if a person has experienced something that another person is experiencing – it allows that â€Å"outsider† to know exactly what is going on in the mind of that other person, to know what they are feeling, and are able to relate. Another well-known phrase that can be used to fully understand the meaning of empathy is â€Å"seeing eye to eye† with the other person. I have had, at times, the feeling of being an imposter in the career field that I am currently in. I would begin to doubt myself and my abilities, which would lead me to question myself repeatedly about why I am getting myself involved in counseling. It has even gotten to the point where I have found myself considering a career change, though I know that, after all the schooling I have put myself through, switching careers is hardly an option for me. Just from my own experience, I feel that many people that are new to a position or to a certain profession feel like an imposter. People spend a lot of time in school, preparing for what they should do upon graduating and entering their job,

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Improving the processes of patient care to improve outcomes Essay Example for Free

Improving the processes of patient care to improve outcomes Essay Improving the processes of patient care to improve outcomes is fundamental to quality patient care and requires skills in change management. Porter-OGrady, Tim; Malloch, Kathy. Leadership in Nursing Practice (p. 3). Jones Bartlett Learning. Kindle Edition. The term innovation, rather than change, is often used to gain attention and infer that something new and special is happening. One of Porter-OGrady, Tim; Malloch, Kathy. Leadership in Nursing Practice (p. 4). Jones Bartlett Learning. Kindle Edition. the reasons there are significant variations in the descriptions of change and innovation can be attributed to the various underlying assumptions about the environment and the nature of change. Porter-OGrady, Tim; Malloch, Kathy. Leadership in Nursing Practice (p. 4). Jones Bartlett Learning. Kindle Edition. Linear change does not recognize the multiple, unanticipated human actions and communications that occur and the dynamic context in which the change is occurring. As a consequence, the linear perspective often becomes rigid, control driven, frustrating, and unsuccessful. Porter-OGrady, Tim; Malloch, Kathy. Leadership in Nursing Practice (p. 5). Jones Bartlett Learning. Kindle Edition. The world is in continual motion, and movement occurs in more than linear ways. A change in one area can result in numerous, unanticipated changes in areas not considered. Porter-OGrady, Tim; Malloch, Kathy. Leadership in Nursing Practice (p. 5). Jones Bartlett Learning. Kindle Edition. Interactions in a complexity perspective are characterized by creativity, interdependence, unpredictability, and collective knowledge. Porter-OGrady, Tim; Malloch, Kathy. Leadership in Nursing Practice (p. 6). Jones Bartlett Learning. Kindle Edition. Change is †¦ †¢ Something new or different †¢ To make or become different †¢ To alter; to make different; to cause to pass from one state to another; as, to change the position, character, or Porter-OGrady, Tim; Malloch, Kathy. Leadership in Nursing Practice (p. 6). Jones Bartlett Learning. Kindle Edition. appearance of a thing; to change the countenance †¢ To alter by substituting something else for, or by giving up for something else; as, to change the clothes; to change one’s occupation; to change one’s intention †¢ To give and take reciprocally; to exchange; followed by with; as, to change place, or hats, or money, with another Source: Webster’s Dictionary (1991). Innovation is †¦ †¢ Anything that creates new resources, processes, or values or improves a company’s existing resources, processes, or values (Christensen, Anthony, Roth, 2004) †¢ The power to define the industry; the effort to create purposefully focused changed in Porter-OGrady, Tim; Malloch, Kathy. Leadership in Nursing Practice (p. 6). Jones Bartlett Learning. Kindle Edition. an enterprise’s economic or social potential Porter-OGrady, Tim; Malloch, Kathy. Leadership in Nursing Practice (p. 6). Jones Bartlett Learning. Kindle Edition. evidence-based practice, linkages between clinical practice and scientific standards, the quest for consistency, minimizing idiosyncrasies, and providing a scientific basis for policy construction are the basic reasons for a change in health care. Using an evidence-driven model serves to provide focus and organization of change initiatives; evidence-based practice is the platform for nurses’ work. Porter-OGrady, Tim; Malloch, Kathy. Leadership in Nursing Practice (p. 10). Jones Bartlett Learning. Kindle Edition. chaos is normative in health care. Porter-OGrady, Tim; Malloch, Kathy. Leadership in Nursing Practice (p. 14). Jones Bartlett Learning. Kindle Edition. Personal knowledge and accountability for one’s own strengths and limitations specific to change and innovation, including technical capability and computer literacy †¢ Understanding the essence of change and innovation concepts as well as the tools of innovation †¢ The ability to collaborate and fully engage team members— that is, relational competencies Porter-OGrady, Tim; Malloch, Kathy. Leadership in Nursing Practice (p. 14). Jones Bartlett Learning. Kindle Edition. †¢ Competence in embracing vulnerability and risk taking Porter-OGrady, Tim; Malloch, Kathy. Leadership in Nursing Practice (p. 14). Jones Bartlett Learning. Kindle Edition.

Friday, November 15, 2019

Structural Sociologists vs Interpretive Sociologists Essay examples --

Is it true that structural sociologists use only quantitative methods while interpretive sociologists use only qualitative methods? The methods that sociologists use to conduct their research vary and can depend on practical considerations such as suitability of the method, and theoretical considerations such as the sociologist’s theoretical position. Interpretive sociologists focus on the meanings and definitions which guide and direct behaviour, they claim that understanding human behaviour involves seeing the world through the eyes of those being studied. Structural sociologists can be called positivists. Positivist sociology models itself on the natural sciences such as physics, it is concerned with behaviour that can be directly observed and quantified e.g. the number of visits to the doctors in one year. It attempts to explain human behaviour by discovering cause and effect relationships e.g. Durkheim claimed he had found a causal relationship between social isolation and suicide. Interpretivists use a range of research methods. They often use unstructu...

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

Product Quality

Does product quality guarantee the success of a business? Various factors are analyzed to examine whether or not a good quality product by itself can propel a business into success. A product of good quality can be defined as one that best satisfies the consumer’s needs at the price they are willing to pay. While it is integral to business success, it is certainly not the only factor that guarantees it, simply because businesses function as an integrated whole, and the success of only one part does not guarantee success of the entire organization.Business success can be referred to as an achievement of common objectives such as profitability, growth, or increasing market share. A good quality product undeniably brings positive contributions to the success of a business. One benefit is customer satisfaction. Once they are satisfied with the product, the customer will be likely to make repeat purchases, and over time develop a strong loyalty towards the brand. When the business has a reputation for producing good quality products with a strong customer base, it establishes itself in a strong position in the market, giving it the opportunity to increase its market share.As a result, retailers would be more willing to stock their products, giving the business more options in terms of the channel of distribution, and thus giving them a competitive advantage. This can also lead to marketing economies of scale, whereby a cross marketing of brands can be used to strongly promote different products simultaneously because an overall positive brand image has been created. Another cost saving is that fewer complaints will need to be dealt with, and because of this, fewer repairs and wastage costs will be incurred.These savings of average costs could then be kept as retained profits, or invested in business growth, proving beneficial to business success. Read more in Business  « Globalization: A Natural Phenomenon Establishing Business Communications in an Emerging Company  » It is evident, then, that businesses must find some sort of way of monitoring quality that best suits them to ensure quality products are consistently produced. This could involve quality control, where inspectors check a sample of finished products for defects, or quality assurance, where quality is the responsibility of each worker and is built into the production process.Quality control could perhaps work better with management that believe in a more strictly controlled work environment, whereas quality assurance works better if management empower and trust workers more, allowing them participation in the improvement process. Provided these methods are implemented well enough, and are appropriate to the corporate culture of the business, this crucial aspect influencing business success can be ensured.However, because businesses operate in complex environments there are many other contributing factors to business success, which, if not integrated with good product qu ality, will have negative effects. From a marketing perspective, in the research and development stage, market research must be conducted accurately to predict demand; otherwise, even if a very good quality product is produced, if a target market is not defined or there is no demand for it at all, then the product will fail.In the development process, value analysis should be conducted, where the appearance, performance and the economy of manufacture of the product should be compared to achieve an ideal balance. If the business solely relied on product quality, it would focus on appearance and performance and neglect the economy of manufacture, which could lead to the production of a good that customers find to be of high quality, but costs so much to produce that it is not profitable to the business, and not worth making.

Sunday, November 10, 2019

Motherland Speech Essay

Long years ago we made a tryst with destiny, and now the time comes when we will redeem our pledge, not wholly or in full measure, but very substantially. At the stroke of the midnight hour, when the world sleeps, India will awake to life and freedom. A moment comes, which comes but rarely in history, when we step out from the old to the new, when an age ends and when the soul of a nation, long suppressed, finds utterance †¦. We end today a period of ill fortune, and India discovers herself again. A country got rid of her foreign yoke and became a sovereign nation, she celebrated her sovereignty on this day – the triumph of numerous martyred souls. It was a day of fulfillment, it was the day of a new beginning, a birth of a nation.On the stroke of midnight, a country came into life again as the british handed over the governance to the leaders.The long and difficult struggle had borne fruit at last, though the happiness was marred by the fact that the country was divided and the violent communal riots had left the countries permanently scarred. That was the price that India paid for her dearly bought freedom. The british government declared the country independent and left for their own shores. On the 15th of August, 1947, India became completely independent. It was on this historic date that Jawaharlal Nehru, the first prime Minister of India, unfurled the Indian tricolor on the ramparts the magnificent Red Fort, symbolically marking the end of the british colonial rule.. Long years ago we made a tryst with destiny, and now the time comes when we shall redeem our pledge, not wholly or in full measure, but very substantially. At the stroke of the midnight hour, the world still sleeps ,ourselves to cooperate with them in furthering peace, freedom and democracy. And to India, our much-loved motherland, the ancient, the eternal and the ever-new, we†¦

Friday, November 8, 2019

Real Gas Definition and Examples

Real Gas Definition and Examples A real gas is a gas that does not behave as an ideal gas due to interactions between gas molecules. A real gas is also known as a nonideal gas because the behavior of a real gas in only approximated by the ideal gas law. When Real Gases Differ From Ideal Gases Usually, its fine to use the ideal gas law to make calculations for gases. However, the approximation gives considerable error at very high pressure, near the critical point, or near the condensation point of a gas. Unlike ideal gases, a real gas is subject to: Van der Waals forcesCompressibility effectsNon-equilibrium thermodynamic effectsVariable specific heat capacityVariable composition, including molecular dissociation and other chemical reactions Real Gas Example While cool air at ordinary pressure behaves like an ideal gas, increasing its pressure or temperature increases the interactions between molecules, resulting in real gas behavior that cannot be predicted reliably using the ideal gas law. Sources Cengel, Yunus A. and Michael A. Boles (2010). Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach (7th Ed.). McGraw-Hill. ISBN 007-352932-X.Xiang, H. W. (2005). The Corresponding-States Principle and its Practice: Thermodynamic, Transport and Surface Properties of Fluids. Elsevier. ISBN 978-0-08-045904-2.

Tuesday, November 5, 2019

How To Grow From 0 to 1 Million Customers With Noah Kagan

How To Grow From 0 to 1 Million Customers With Noah Kagan Have you ever wondered what the process would be like to start something from scratch and end up with a million users? Today we’re going to be talking about just that with Noah Kagan, the chief sumo at and AppSumo. He also hosts Noah Kagan Presents, which is an awesome podcast, and he has a steady stream of stuff on Our conversation today is going to help you set better goals and achieve more than you ever have before. How Noah handles the marketing at and what has the most potential. How Noah ended up at Mint, where he helped grow the company from zero to over a million users. Why Noah doesn’t believe in hope in the business world. The process Noah used to put his plan together, come up with ideas, figure out how much traffic he had, and more. Common mistakes that Noah sees other people making. Why copying methods you see described on other people’s blog posts doesn’t work. The greatest piece of marketing advice Noah has received. Links: AppSumo Noah Kagan Presents If you liked today’s show, please subscribe on iTunes to The Actionable Content Marketing Podcast! The podcast is also available on SoundCloud, Stitcher, and Google Play. Quotes by Noah: â€Å"I believe in hope in fantasy and fairytales in the real world or in the non-business world, but in business, no.† â€Å"If youre not making mistakes, youre probably not experimenting enough.† â€Å"At the end of the day, it really just comes down to you got to do it yourself go and experiment yourself, go and promote something.†

Sunday, November 3, 2019

Competitor Analysis Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Competitor Analysis - Assignment Example The hotels compete for the common market with the Baldwin hotel by manipulating their service and product bouquets. Among their features of competitions are the seven Ps of marketing including price, product, place and profit among others. Established in 1998, the Powell hotel is a state of the art facility sitting at the heart of the city at the Union square. The vantage position gives the hotel unparalleled access to the shopping malls and centers in the city. Owing to this, the hotel is therefore a favorite for different tourists who visit the city to shop. The hotel has deluxe rooms among other comfort facilities to attract the affluent class. Located next to one of the greatest landmarks in the city the Chinatown dragon town, the Baldwin Hotel boasts high quality five star services ranging from deluxe rooms, customized cuisines and fully furnished conference facilities among many others. Additionally, the business operates with a robustness and dynamism that exhibits a competition conscious marketing and management departments. It has a steady market share that keeps it operational everyday but just as with any other business the hotel strives to expand its market by beating its competition in introducing new product and service categories. The hotel targets the middle class tourists who frequent the city from different regions. The provision of conference facilities is a new service that targets business organizations. Hotel Carlton another competitor in the city enjoys strategic position at the eastern entry of the city thus promising convenience to its customers. The hotel offers diverse services including car rental, bed and breakfast and conference facilities among others. It has deluxe rooms with luxurious facilities such as digital television, free internet, and hot bath among many others. The two hotels have a specific target market, most of their services are tailored for a typical tourist who seeks convince to

Friday, November 1, 2019

The Rhetorical Triangle Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

The Rhetorical Triangle - Essay Example In that, it does not leave the reader questioning about the seriousness of the writer. Additionally, the font makes the reader curious about the information is written down or the information they are about to read. Times New Roman typeface creates a decent impression especially when written in a business or school setting as it shows that the student or individual knows what they really want with their life. Additionally, using Times New Roman as a font choice makes the reader see that the person is bold in their writing, as it shows confidence and understanding of what the person needs. For example, when written in a resume compared to other fonts such as the Comic Sans, it shows that the job applicant is serious and is worthy of the job position. Therefore, although most people do not take the typefaces seriously, they say a lot about a person. In that, a person with a good character or confident may be misjudged because of the typeface they use. This means that a person should be careful in choosing their typeface in order to correspond with their character and also to leave a good impression on others.

Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Cognitive behaviour therapy- case study Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

Cognitive behaviour therapy- case study - Essay Example At the surface are the negative automatic thoughts (NAT), which are beliefs and assumptions stored in memory as schemas (Bartlet, 1932). NAT forms the basis of the classic Beck model of depression, which is based not only on NAT about oneself, and the world and the future, but also upon maladaptive assumptions and negative schemas (Beck, 1967). The underlying cause of anxiety is a distortion in processing information is connected with the client’s overestimated concept of danger and the underestimated ability to cope (Beck, Emery & Greenberg, 1985). Activation of danger appraisals, in conjunction with physiological changes maintain different anxiety vicious circles (Simmons & Griffiths, 2009). Specific models of disorders, such as generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) are characterized by the person’s inability to cope with chronic worry. Similarly, the Social Phobia Model emphasizes the fact that, in the cognition of the person suffering from social phobia, certain situat ions are associated with danger (Clark & Wells, 1995). CBT is goal-oriented, and it emphasizes collaboration and active participation (Westbrook et al., 2007). CBT teaches the client how to identify, evaluate and respond to his or her dysfunctional thoughts and beliefs. ... At the beginning of the session, she was avoiding eye contact by nervously adjusting her scarf, trying to cover red stains all over her chest and neck. I deliberately ignored this behavior, and focused on the therapy process, which helped her to relax. She became less fidgety and our conversation went fluently. Client biographical details and recent history: Sally is a 24-year-old female, who is single and working as a training officer. Sally describes her childhood as happy, however, there were events which may have significantly influenced her current life. Her parents divorced when she was eight. This confused her, but it did not affect her as much as it could have, because both parents were there for her. She has a close relationship with her mother, although she described her as overprotective and bossy. Since the age of seven, Sally was physical and psychologically bullied by other kids at her school. Because of this, she had problems adapting to school and struggled to fit in socially to school life. Because of this, she had to change schools twice. Sally continued her education at a university in Scotland. Her teenage life was also influenced by a few dramatic events. When she was sixteen, she had her first abortion. She described this as a relief, as both she and her boyfriend were about to start university. During the first year at the university, Sally had her first depressive episode. She described her first year at university as horrible. She was bullied by her flatmates, and she felt lonely and separated from her boyfriend and family. Sally felt under pressure, and struggled with university requirements. She perceives those

Monday, October 28, 2019

Financial Analysis of Ryanair and British Airways

Financial Analysis of Ryanair and British Airways Financial analysis The purpose of financial analysis is to determine the financial health of a business. Generally, this analysis is performed by the professionals who prepare reports using the ratios taken from various financial reports. The financial ratios calculated are also helpful to compare with different business. The following analysis studies the four major financial positions of BA and Ryan air; Profitability, Efficiency, Liquidity and Financial gearing. Profitability: It is the primary goal for any business, without this the business cannot be projected in long run. The purpose of measuring profitability is the key contribution for success of business. The ratios which are used to evaluate profitability are listed below: Return on ordinary shareholders funds (ROSF) Return on capital employed (ROCE) Net profit margin Gross profit margin. ROSF: It compares the amount of profit for the period available to the owner’s average stake in the business during that same period. The ratio is expressed below: ROSF = (Net profit after taxation and preference dividend (if any) / ordinary share capital +reserves) Ãâ€" 100 The Ratios calculated for BA Ryan air are shown below: From the above table, it is clearly seen that BA values are inconsistent but whereas Ryan air tends to show improvement every year which gives more profits to the shareholders. From the definition we can say that the high ROSF %, the more profit available to shareholders. The year 2011 considered to be good for both airlines BA and Ryan air, since they are making huge profits and improved revenues compared to their previous year performance. As a result, their ROSF had risen to 26% 11.34% which resulting high profits to the shareholders. This scenario has changed completely when it comes to 2012 for BA. If their investors left their money in bank, they could have got some positive returns. But instead BA returned (3.6%) to their investors. Though its revenue is increased by 8% and operational cost by 11% it continued to show appreciable operating results. However, due to exceptional costs items like expense related to pensions, BMI’s acquisition affected the BA economy. On the other hand, Ryan air returned 16.11% which is higher than previous year to the shareholders. This is because Ryan air revenue increased by 25% and profit by 50% approximately compared to 2011. (According to annual report 2012).Though its operating costs are increased due to (fuel price rise) it managed to balance that by increasing passengers fares of about 15%. In 2013, BA has raised from loss of (3.6) % to 10.78%. This is because of company attains the profit from exceptional items ( £57m) and IAG part of BA contributed  £ (265m) and also revenue rose by 5.5%. Though inconsistent in fuel prices affects their operational costs which is almost 0.3% of their total operational costs. But BA managed to stabilise it by non-fuel costs which has risen in 2012. Whereas Ryan air revenue increased by 13% which is less compared to 2012 change. Since it’s a low cost carrier it should maintain passenger fare as low as possible in order to compete with its rivals but, inconsistency in fuel prices had raised their operational costs by 45% and passenger fare by 6%. At the end company operated in profits and returned 17.35% to the shareholders. Based on ROSF results, we can say that Ryan air has performed well continuously in three consecutive year’s period by giving profits to its shareholders but BA shown some ups and downs in its results. Further ratios will give us more idea why the difference has been evolved in their performance. ROCE (Return on capital employed): It is a fundamental measure of business performance. ROCE is defined as the ratio of net operating profit to the capital employed. Capital employed is the difference b/w total assets and current liabilities. The ratio is expressed below: ROCE = (NET PROFIT BEFORE TAX / CAPITAL EMPLOYED) Ãâ€" 100 The ratios calculated for BA and Ryan air is shown below: The above table describes the ROCE of a company for a period 2011-2013. From the definition we can state that higher the value of ROSE is indicating that the company c generates more earnings per dollar of capital employed. It enables us to analyse and compare BA and Ryan air without the impact of tax. It also considered the long-term debt as a part of capital, which is not the case of ROSF.Thus; this ratio reveals how BA and Ryan air economized on its overall capital. In 2011, BA performed well by giving a positive result due to increased revenue in 2011 from premium travel passengers. But the performance is shrined in 2012 due to rise in operational costs and loss of  £ 41m on exceptional items and also  £66m due to partnership with IAG. Due to this it had shown negative result in 2012. But in 2013, it again rises to 4.11% from (1.86%) because of the factors explained in ROSF. Ryan air has shown continuous improvement for three years. In 2011 its profit increased by 26% and carefully balancing the fuel costs and operating costs. For the other two years also it continuous to shown good result even though operating cost rise to 45%. Thus, we can say from ROCE ratios Ryan air performed much better than BA. The gross-profit margin is studied below to measure the profitability. GROSS PROFIT MARGIN: It is a key financial factor that asses the profitability of a company core activities excluding fixed cost. Gross profit represents the difference b/w sales revenue and the cost of sales. The ratio is represented by gross profit to the sales revenue generated for the same period. It is a given by the formula shown below: Gross profit margin = (gross profit/sales revenue) Ãâ€" 100 Gross profit margin ratios of BA and Ryan air is shown below: It can be seen from above table that Ryan air performed well compared to BA. Though the values over three years slightly fluctuate but they were generating good profitability by improving their sales and proper balancing and control of fuel costs which has almost rise to 38% in 2013. Similarly airport charges and other operational costs were stabilised to make airline in profitable condition. On other hand, BA also performed well except for the year which its fuel costs rise by 14 %, maintenance by 15% and operating lease costs by 34%. Due to this they showed lower values. But by gaining proper control over the above costs mentioned they started to improve their profitability by 2013. Now net profit margin is studied in order to see whether the airline is able to improve its profitability. NET PROFIT MARGIN: It is the defined as the ratio b/w net profit before tax to the sales revenue. It also measures how much each of dollar earned by the company is translated into profits. If the value is low it indicates low margin of safety and higher risk that the sales decline will erase profits and lead to net loss. It is given by the formula as shown below: Net profit margin = (profit before tax / sales revenue) Ãâ€" 100 Net profit margin ratios for BA and Ryan air shown below: The above table depicts us Ryan air is operating much better than BA. From annual reports it is known that BA invested much money for long-term asset. Hence, their net profit margins are quite low in these three years. In 2011, it invested in IAG, bought BMI at  £172.5m in 2012 and from 2011 it’s investing  £5 billion every year for new fleet and up gradation of fleet and 2011 it opened T5 which will be home to A380 fleet from 2013. On the other hand, Ryan air net profit margins are high since its investments for long term assets are low compared to BA. Ryan air continuously invest to buy new a/c’s hence it’s the reason that it has youngest fleet of planes in the world. In 2013 it decided to buy 175 new Boeing 737-800 a/c which will be a long term asset for the Ryan air to transport more no. of passengers. In conclusion to the analysis of BA and Ryan air, profitability is measured by using various ratios. The results are fluctuated for BA whereas Ryan air tends to show improvement year by year from 2011-13. Both BA and Ryan air increased their revenues, gained some control over operational costs along the analysis and deliver positive returns except for the year 2012 for BA. EFFICIENCY: The efficiency ratios measure the efficiency in which various resources are managed and used in the business. The following ratios are used to evaluate the efficiency of the business: Average settlement period for receivables Average settlement period for payables Sales revenue to capital employed Sales revenue per employee Average settlement period for Receivables: A business will usually be concerned with how long it takes for customers to pay the amounts owing. The efficient and timely collection of customer debts is a vital part of cash flow management. So this is the ratio which is very closely watched in many businesses. It is given by the formula as shown below: Avg.settlement period for receivables = (Trade receivables/sales revenue) Ãâ€"365. The ratios calculated for BA and Ryan air shown below table: The values in above table depict the average number of days used to collect its revenue from debtors. Both BA and Ryan air has got appreciable shorter period to collect their revenue. In the analysis period from 2011- 13, BA managed to get back his revenue from receivables by an average of 17 days with slightly increased in 2013 compared to 2011. When it comes to Ryan air it has got very shorter period of an average of 5 days. From the table it is clearly seen that debtor days have fallen which means business is converting credit sales into cash much quicker than BA. This shorter period certainly asset for Ryan air liquidity. Average settlement period for payables: The average settlement period for payables measures how long, on average, the business takes to pay its trade payables. The ratio is calculated by a formula shown below: Average settlement period for payables = (trade payables/credit purchases) Ãâ€"365 The ratios calculated for creditors as shown below: Sales revenue to capital employed: This ratio examines how effectively the assets of the business are being used to generate sales revenue. Greater the value represents higher productivity. The ratio is calculated by a formula shown below: Sales revenue to capital employed= (sales revenue/ (total assets-current liabilities)) The ratios are calculated for BA and Ryan air as shown below: From the table it is clearly seen that both BA and Ryan air have utilised their assets properly to improve their productivity and hence it is the reason their values of productivity rising over past three years. The values of Ryan air is small compared to BA because Ryan air revenue is almost half of BA’s total revenue. At last despite of their company size both are making use of their assets properly. Sales revenue per employee: It is the ratio relates sale revenue generated to a particular business resource, which is labour. Higher the value indicates greater staff efficiency. Its ratio is calculated by a formula shown below: Sales revenue per employee = (sales revenue / number of employees) The ratio calculated for BA and Ryan air shown below: The above tables describes about sales revenue per employee. Both companies uses different currency so for better analysis BA revenue is converted to euros according to exchange rate in that periods. The values clearly states that Ryan air is more labour productive than BA and other fact is noticed from table is that two companies increasing their efficiency over the analysis period 2011-2013. LIQUIDITY: These ratios are concerned with the ability of the business to meet its short-term financial obligations. Higher the ratio, the more liquid the business is considered to be, since liquidity is vital to the survival of a business. Liquidity is measured by the following ratios shown below: Current ratio; Acid test ratio. Current ratio: It is defined as the ratio b/w liquid assets to the current liabilities. A higher current ratio is preferable to a normal one since liquidity is vital part in business. It is given by the formula as shown: Current Ratio = (current assets/ current liabilities) The current ratio values for BA and Ryan air shown below: Values in above table clearly depict that BA current ratio values over three years On the other hand, Ryan air maintained its current ratio values >1 throughout analysis period in which it properly balanced short-term assets over liabilities and has got more liquidity compared to BA. In 2013 Ryan air current ratio value is decreased compared to 2012 because it has decided to buy 175 new Boeing 737 planes over next five years. Overall, Ryan air liquidity is better than BA. Acid-test ratio: This is an indicator that determines whether a company has enough short-term assets to cover immediate liabilities without selling inventory. This ratio is more reliable compared to current ratio because it doesn’t include inventory. This is given by a formula as shown below: Acid-test ratio=current assets / current liabilities. (Excludes inventories in current assets) The values for BA and Ryan are shown below: From the table it is seen that BA values during analysis period is, this ratio indicates that company experiencing good growth, fastly converting receivables into cash and also it can also overcome its financial obligations without depending on inventories. In conclusion to the analysis of BA and Ryan air, liquidity is measured by using various ratios. The results are fluctuated for BA whereas Ryan air tends to show improvement year by year from 2011-13. Ryan air has got more liquidity compared to BA and it can easily overcome its financial obligations. 3.4 Financial Gearing: It is the relationship b/w the contribution to financing made by the owners of the business and the amount contributed by others in form of loans. A business level of gearing is an important factor accessing risk. Gearing takes place of owner’s insufficient funds. Any business borrowing money from others agrees to pay interests; if the borrowing is heavy then this can be significant financial burden to the company. The ratios used to measure gearing are shown below: Gearing ratio; Interest cover ratio. Gearing ratio: It is defined as ratio b/w long-term lenders to the long-term capital structure of a business. It is given by a formula as shown: Gearing ratio = (non-current liabilities/capital employed) The gearing ratios for BA and Ryan air calculated below: The values from table states that both companies are highly geared businesses since their gearing ratios > 50%. Both the companies have high shares of long-term debt in their long-term capital structure. So both companies are subjected to financial risk. Ryan air tends to decrease its debts during analysed period which can be seen from the table by controlling their operational costs effectively during analysed period. Whereas, BA managed to decrease their debts with some fluctuations in values which can be observed from the years, a cash flow which is strong and reliable can handle high gearing effectively compared to cash flow which is unreliable .

Friday, October 25, 2019

The Efficiency of Hybrid Cars Essay -- Hybrid Cars Car Gasoline Effici

The Efficiency of Hybrid Cars   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Transportation is a large concern in today’s modern world. Most individuals have opted to buy vehicles for their personal use. Most of these vehicles consume gasoline and a smaller proportion is hybrid based. These two types of vehicles have many similarities. The two such vehicles require an energy source and both types of vehicles provide an important function to society. That function is to provide people with a reliable form of transportation. Although these two types of vehicles have many similarities, their differences are what distinguish them. Hybrid vehicles are more cost effective, environmentally sound, and safe than the standard gasoline vehicles in the long run. Cost is a key factor to consumers in determining what vehicle to purchase. On average hybrid vehicles cost fifteen hundred dollars more than the standard gasoline vehicle. However, this extra expense is well invested. A hybrid vehicle can reach sixty-one miles per gallon, whereas a typical gasoline vehicle can only reach twenty-eight miles per gallon. Currently gas costs two dollars and ten cents per gallon. The average individual can be expected to drive fifteen miles per year. This amounts to a total gas expense of eleven hundred dollars. If one were to own a hybrid vehicle this expense would eventually pay for the extra fifteen hundred dollars that was required to buy a hybrid car. In two years one would expect to have saved over seven hundred dollars and in t...

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Xyz Affair

From March of 1797 to 1800, a diplomatic scandal occurred where Americans were outraged by demands from the French for a bribe as a condition for negotiating with American diplomats that became known as the XYZ Affair. John Adams took presidency in 1797 and inherited several problems from George Washington’s administration, including hostilities between the United States and France that began to escalate in the 1790s. The signing of Jay’s Treaty, which violated of the Treaty of Paris yet averted the threat of war with England, induced angry reactions from both American and European politicians.Democratic-Republicans believed the treaty was a humiliating surrender to the British. French leaders, meanwhile, viewed it as a union with their enemy, and the violation of the Franco-American Treaty of 1778. In response to the John Jay’s agreement, the French used forces to plunder more than 300 American ships. To stop the attacks on American shipping and settle on an agr eement with France, Adams appointed three commissioners: Charles Pinckney, United States minister to France; John Marshall, a Virginia lawyer; and Elbridge Gerry of Massachusetts.Upon arriving in Paris in October 1797, the three men experienced a hostile environment. They requested a meeting with the French government. The envoys met three secret agents to relay Talleyrand’s terms of negotiations. The three agents were labeled as X, Y and Z, but later revealed as Baron Jean-Conrad Hottinguer, Pierre Bellamy, and Lucien Hauteval respectfully. The agents insisted that before any negotiate could begin, they demanded 50,000 pounds of sterling, a $12 million loan from America, a $250,000 personal bribe to the French minister, and a formal apology to the French minister for a comment made by President John Adams.Though bribery was extremely common in the eighteenth-century politics, Talleyrands demands were too high for merely a pledge to negotiate. Pinckney rejected the terms and told the French agents â€Å"no, no, not a sixpence. † The incident became known as â€Å"The XYZ Affair. † Once the commissioners’ report to Congress became public, citizens were furious about the French behavior. Even the most loyal Democratic-Republicans, who supported a strong relationship with France, felt a sense of betrayal and many joined a call for war.Pinckney’s response to the demands sparked a rallying that spread throughout the colonies: â€Å"Millions for defense, but not one cent for tribute. † Federalist politicians were eager for a fight and the war campaign gained more support. Adams refused to declare war but advocated the build-up of American armed forces and raised taxes. Adams also accepted new laws that tried to limit protests against the government and its actions. These laws were the Alien and Sedition Acts.They made it difficult for immigrants to become a United States citizen and people from certain countries, such as Fra nce, could not become a citizen at all. The laws also restricted free speech and freedom of the press. Many citizens saw the Alien and Sedition Acts as harsh and undemocratic laws. Congress stopped commercial trade with France, renounced the alliance of 1778, tripled the size of the army, and created a Navy Department with an order for the contraction of 40 warships.By the fall of 1798, American ships were waging an undeclared war against the French in the Caribbean waters, a conflict that is known as the Quasi-War. The French seized over 300 American ships. The United States retaliated by capturing 22 French ships off the American coast and in the West Indies. Hamilton led the Federalist charge for war, but Adams remained steadfast in his refusal to sign a formal declaration of war. He believed that war with France would divide the colonies and lead to a civil war.This could be Adams’ finest hour because his of his decision to put the interests of his nation ahead of those o f his party. 5 In 1799, Tallyrand, who did not want to deplete the French military with a fight outside of Europe, let it be known that he was willing to talk. Adams sent another delegation to negotiate a peaceful end to the quasi-war with France. But by the time the envoy arrived in Paris, Napolean Bonaparte was in power and looking to cut ties with America.The two sides finally produced an agreement called â€Å"The Convention of 1800,† that annulled the 1778 treaty of alliance and excused the French from damage claims of American shippers. Had Adams chosen war, it may have jeopardized the American purchase of Louisiana in 1803. The threat of war with France was eliminated. President Adams showed Europe that the new American nation was ready to defend itself and would not be bullied anymore. The naval program Adams helped to stimulate would also help the United States defeat the Barbay pirates in the First and Second Barbay war as well as aiding in the War of 1812.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Job Satisfaction of Teachers Essay

Leadership entails a number of different parts and can come from any position in the school. The administration is the main source of leadership in a school. Generally, we associate school leadership with superintendents and principals. People in these positions are in charge of making decisions, which run the school. However, teachers can also provide leadership in their classroom and through activities and other extracurricular activities. Katzenmeyer and Moller (1996) argue â€Å"†¦there is a sleeping giant of teacher leadership that can be a catalyst to push school reform†¦.† Even students can provide leadership in certain situations such as an athletic team’s captain, a point guard for a basketball team, or a class officer. With the many places leadership can occur, to have good school leadership, all people need to be willing to share responsibility and power. Lambert (1998) argues, â€Å"Leadership requires the redistribution of power and authority.† This distribution of power can lead to trust between staff and administration. This trust emerges when administrators and teachers work together to benefit the school. Trust comes about by principals trusting the judgment of teachers in the classroom and backing teachers on issues such as discipline. So that the teachers’ authority is not undermined, discipline must be consistent and not show favoritism toward any student. Teachers, in turn, must trust that the principal will follow through on all rules and not make exceptions for the school’s â€Å"star† athlete or â€Å"smartest† student. This trust is also part of a type of leadership theory called transformational leadership. Bass (1996) says that trust is a key component of idealized influence, which incorporates faith and respect, dedication, and trust into leadership. Trust is an important aspect of leadership. With the trust between leader and follower, good school leadership will also have excellent communication. Smith, who can be found in Bean (2000), argues that communicating and keeping people informed of changes and events is a key part of effective leadership. People must discuss problems and possible solutions with each other. By not doing this, the problems will continue and the organization will fall into disarray. For example, let us look at a basketball team. If the opposing team is playing man-to-man defense, it will do the offense little good to run plays designed to attack a zone defense. Here is where the coach or offensive players must talk to each other and run the correct plays. Furthermore, we see the importance of communication from Yukl (1998). He states â€Å"Leadership is about creating teamwork, collaboration, communication, and the emphasis on a total group effort.† By communicating concerns, teachers can make administrators aware of potentially school harming actions and can put a stop to these before they go too far. One example of this would be the last month of school in my school district. Due to the hot weather, students begin use squirt guns and balloons to spray each other with water. With graduation and other senior activities to organize, the principal is not in the hallways as much as previous months. Therefore, the teachers need to let the principal know this is beginning so penalties can be determined and readily enforced. This can cut down on water damage of the school and the students can continue to stay focused on school. One aspect of effective leadership that needs to be communicated to all associated with the school district is the vision of where the school is and where it needs to go. Goleman (1995) argues that â€Å"†¦leader can be expected to communicate a vision well†¦generate energy and enthusiasm regarding this vision, epitomize its meaning through the example of personal behavior, and generally inspire others to reach this vision†¦.† People need to be motivated to do a job, whether in school or in the work force. Vision gives people a goal and direction; giving them something to work for. Making people aware of the vision for the school will help parents, students, teachers, and administrators to be on the same page and working to achieve the vision together as a team. Daft (1999) states there are many pieces that visionary leadership can accomplish. These pieces include the linking of the present and future, encouraging commitment, providing meaning to work, encouraging imagination, and defining the destination. For example, if the vision of a sports team is to win, through strong dedication by players and coaches, winning will happen. If coaches can help athletes see the importance of practice and teamwork, there will be chemistry and success. With the vision of moving into the future, there comes problems and opposition. Another part of good school leadership is facing these problems and solving them. An effective way to work to solve problems is to form a group of people to suggest solutions for whatever problems occur. An excellent model to follow is suggested by Bean (2000) and is called POLCA: that is Planning, Organizing, Leading, Controlling, and Assessing. One problem a school district might face is incorporating the new Pennsylvania standards for education into the curriculum. My school district is in this process and work on this is set to begin in August 2000. Our superintendent started this process by carefully planning when to work on these changes. The mathematics and English departments were contacted to help work on these standards. These teachers were organized into groups by their subject area. Outside help was brought in. These parties had knowledge writing the standards for the state and helping other schools work the standards into the curriculum. These men lead the English and mathematics groups in the writing of our curriculum to include state mandates. After drafting standards and curriculum for the district, the work was checked for quality and improvements were made. Finally, the work was assessed and determined to be useful to the district. We can see that effective leadership is not easy. It takes hard work and tolerance from many different parities. Teachers, administrators, parents, and students all play a part in good school leadership. The administrators plan for the entire district, the teachers for the classroom. Parents and students help with support and may act in limited leadership roles. Effective leaders need to be able to distribute leadership to worthy parties and possibly divide it up to many individuals or groups. Effective leaders need to communicate and problem-solve. Having good social skills and having a good plan can make leadership easier and solving problems smoother. Lambert (1998) says â€Å"It [leadership] needs to be embedded in the school community as a whole.† It takes a team effort to have effective leadership in the school. We all need to work together and share the responsibility of being a leader. 1) A sense of purpose: The values of an organization must be clear, members of the organization should know them, and they should exemplify and uphold them in their own actions. 2) Justice: Everyone in an organization should be held to common standards, with rules and procedures that are clear, firm, fair, and consistent. 3) Temperance: A leader must strive to maintain a proper balance of emotions; Shriver did not mean that leaders should be dispassionate. Quite the contrary- but there are time for passionate advocacy and times for quiet reflection and reconsideration. Balance is the key. 4) Respect: The dignity of each individual is the concern of any leader, and this is preserved by treating all members of the organization with respect and ensuring they treat one-another similarly, regardless of differences. 5) Empowerment: Leaders are just that- leaders. Most of what happens in organizations is carried out by individuals other than those in formal leadership positions. Therefore, the more skilled they are, the more they feel confident in their abilities and competent to make decisions, raise questions, see new possibilities, and disagree respectfully with others at all levels of the organizational hierarchy, the stronger and more successful the organization will be. 6) Courage: Leaders are paid to set direction, not wait for direction to emerge. They have to be willing to follow their convictions and bring their organization to new places. In education, this is most sorely needed in response to the test-based regimen that has taken over our schools at the expense of true education and social-emotional and character development. 7) Deep Commitment: Leaders must not be polishing their resumes, but rather should have deep commitment to their organizations, the advancement of the organizations’ missions, and the wellbeing of everyone in them. It is this deep commitment that makes leadership in schools so challenging, because it requires a commitment to every employee, student, and parent. The performance of a leader must be judged by his or her skills and the character of his or her performance in the many and complex roles that leadership demands. Using the seven cornerstones of leading with character, derived from the life and work of Sargent Shriver, educators and those concerned with education have a tool for both evaluating and improving leadership competencies along both moral and performance dimensions.