Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Cognitive behaviour therapy- case study Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

Cognitive behaviour therapy- case study - Essay Example At the surface are the negative automatic thoughts (NAT), which are beliefs and assumptions stored in memory as schemas (Bartlet, 1932). NAT forms the basis of the classic Beck model of depression, which is based not only on NAT about oneself, and the world and the future, but also upon maladaptive assumptions and negative schemas (Beck, 1967). The underlying cause of anxiety is a distortion in processing information is connected with the client’s overestimated concept of danger and the underestimated ability to cope (Beck, Emery & Greenberg, 1985). Activation of danger appraisals, in conjunction with physiological changes maintain different anxiety vicious circles (Simmons & Griffiths, 2009). Specific models of disorders, such as generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) are characterized by the person’s inability to cope with chronic worry. Similarly, the Social Phobia Model emphasizes the fact that, in the cognition of the person suffering from social phobia, certain situat ions are associated with danger (Clark & Wells, 1995). CBT is goal-oriented, and it emphasizes collaboration and active participation (Westbrook et al., 2007). CBT teaches the client how to identify, evaluate and respond to his or her dysfunctional thoughts and beliefs. ... At the beginning of the session, she was avoiding eye contact by nervously adjusting her scarf, trying to cover red stains all over her chest and neck. I deliberately ignored this behavior, and focused on the therapy process, which helped her to relax. She became less fidgety and our conversation went fluently. Client biographical details and recent history: Sally is a 24-year-old female, who is single and working as a training officer. Sally describes her childhood as happy, however, there were events which may have significantly influenced her current life. Her parents divorced when she was eight. This confused her, but it did not affect her as much as it could have, because both parents were there for her. She has a close relationship with her mother, although she described her as overprotective and bossy. Since the age of seven, Sally was physical and psychologically bullied by other kids at her school. Because of this, she had problems adapting to school and struggled to fit in socially to school life. Because of this, she had to change schools twice. Sally continued her education at a university in Scotland. Her teenage life was also influenced by a few dramatic events. When she was sixteen, she had her first abortion. She described this as a relief, as both she and her boyfriend were about to start university. During the first year at the university, Sally had her first depressive episode. She described her first year at university as horrible. She was bullied by her flatmates, and she felt lonely and separated from her boyfriend and family. Sally felt under pressure, and struggled with university requirements. She perceives those

Monday, October 28, 2019

Financial Analysis of Ryanair and British Airways

Financial Analysis of Ryanair and British Airways Financial analysis The purpose of financial analysis is to determine the financial health of a business. Generally, this analysis is performed by the professionals who prepare reports using the ratios taken from various financial reports. The financial ratios calculated are also helpful to compare with different business. The following analysis studies the four major financial positions of BA and Ryan air; Profitability, Efficiency, Liquidity and Financial gearing. Profitability: It is the primary goal for any business, without this the business cannot be projected in long run. The purpose of measuring profitability is the key contribution for success of business. The ratios which are used to evaluate profitability are listed below: Return on ordinary shareholders funds (ROSF) Return on capital employed (ROCE) Net profit margin Gross profit margin. ROSF: It compares the amount of profit for the period available to the owner’s average stake in the business during that same period. The ratio is expressed below: ROSF = (Net profit after taxation and preference dividend (if any) / ordinary share capital +reserves) Ãâ€" 100 The Ratios calculated for BA Ryan air are shown below: From the above table, it is clearly seen that BA values are inconsistent but whereas Ryan air tends to show improvement every year which gives more profits to the shareholders. From the definition we can say that the high ROSF %, the more profit available to shareholders. The year 2011 considered to be good for both airlines BA and Ryan air, since they are making huge profits and improved revenues compared to their previous year performance. As a result, their ROSF had risen to 26% 11.34% which resulting high profits to the shareholders. This scenario has changed completely when it comes to 2012 for BA. If their investors left their money in bank, they could have got some positive returns. But instead BA returned (3.6%) to their investors. Though its revenue is increased by 8% and operational cost by 11% it continued to show appreciable operating results. However, due to exceptional costs items like expense related to pensions, BMI’s acquisition affected the BA economy. On the other hand, Ryan air returned 16.11% which is higher than previous year to the shareholders. This is because Ryan air revenue increased by 25% and profit by 50% approximately compared to 2011. (According to annual report 2012).Though its operating costs are increased due to (fuel price rise) it managed to balance that by increasing passengers fares of about 15%. In 2013, BA has raised from loss of (3.6) % to 10.78%. This is because of company attains the profit from exceptional items ( £57m) and IAG part of BA contributed  £ (265m) and also revenue rose by 5.5%. Though inconsistent in fuel prices affects their operational costs which is almost 0.3% of their total operational costs. But BA managed to stabilise it by non-fuel costs which has risen in 2012. Whereas Ryan air revenue increased by 13% which is less compared to 2012 change. Since it’s a low cost carrier it should maintain passenger fare as low as possible in order to compete with its rivals but, inconsistency in fuel prices had raised their operational costs by 45% and passenger fare by 6%. At the end company operated in profits and returned 17.35% to the shareholders. Based on ROSF results, we can say that Ryan air has performed well continuously in three consecutive year’s period by giving profits to its shareholders but BA shown some ups and downs in its results. Further ratios will give us more idea why the difference has been evolved in their performance. ROCE (Return on capital employed): It is a fundamental measure of business performance. ROCE is defined as the ratio of net operating profit to the capital employed. Capital employed is the difference b/w total assets and current liabilities. The ratio is expressed below: ROCE = (NET PROFIT BEFORE TAX / CAPITAL EMPLOYED) Ãâ€" 100 The ratios calculated for BA and Ryan air is shown below: The above table describes the ROCE of a company for a period 2011-2013. From the definition we can state that higher the value of ROSE is indicating that the company c generates more earnings per dollar of capital employed. It enables us to analyse and compare BA and Ryan air without the impact of tax. It also considered the long-term debt as a part of capital, which is not the case of ROSF.Thus; this ratio reveals how BA and Ryan air economized on its overall capital. In 2011, BA performed well by giving a positive result due to increased revenue in 2011 from premium travel passengers. But the performance is shrined in 2012 due to rise in operational costs and loss of  £ 41m on exceptional items and also  £66m due to partnership with IAG. Due to this it had shown negative result in 2012. But in 2013, it again rises to 4.11% from (1.86%) because of the factors explained in ROSF. Ryan air has shown continuous improvement for three years. In 2011 its profit increased by 26% and carefully balancing the fuel costs and operating costs. For the other two years also it continuous to shown good result even though operating cost rise to 45%. Thus, we can say from ROCE ratios Ryan air performed much better than BA. The gross-profit margin is studied below to measure the profitability. GROSS PROFIT MARGIN: It is a key financial factor that asses the profitability of a company core activities excluding fixed cost. Gross profit represents the difference b/w sales revenue and the cost of sales. The ratio is represented by gross profit to the sales revenue generated for the same period. It is a given by the formula shown below: Gross profit margin = (gross profit/sales revenue) Ãâ€" 100 Gross profit margin ratios of BA and Ryan air is shown below: It can be seen from above table that Ryan air performed well compared to BA. Though the values over three years slightly fluctuate but they were generating good profitability by improving their sales and proper balancing and control of fuel costs which has almost rise to 38% in 2013. Similarly airport charges and other operational costs were stabilised to make airline in profitable condition. On other hand, BA also performed well except for the year which its fuel costs rise by 14 %, maintenance by 15% and operating lease costs by 34%. Due to this they showed lower values. But by gaining proper control over the above costs mentioned they started to improve their profitability by 2013. Now net profit margin is studied in order to see whether the airline is able to improve its profitability. NET PROFIT MARGIN: It is the defined as the ratio b/w net profit before tax to the sales revenue. It also measures how much each of dollar earned by the company is translated into profits. If the value is low it indicates low margin of safety and higher risk that the sales decline will erase profits and lead to net loss. It is given by the formula as shown below: Net profit margin = (profit before tax / sales revenue) Ãâ€" 100 Net profit margin ratios for BA and Ryan air shown below: The above table depicts us Ryan air is operating much better than BA. From annual reports it is known that BA invested much money for long-term asset. Hence, their net profit margins are quite low in these three years. In 2011, it invested in IAG, bought BMI at  £172.5m in 2012 and from 2011 it’s investing  £5 billion every year for new fleet and up gradation of fleet and 2011 it opened T5 which will be home to A380 fleet from 2013. On the other hand, Ryan air net profit margins are high since its investments for long term assets are low compared to BA. Ryan air continuously invest to buy new a/c’s hence it’s the reason that it has youngest fleet of planes in the world. In 2013 it decided to buy 175 new Boeing 737-800 a/c which will be a long term asset for the Ryan air to transport more no. of passengers. In conclusion to the analysis of BA and Ryan air, profitability is measured by using various ratios. The results are fluctuated for BA whereas Ryan air tends to show improvement year by year from 2011-13. Both BA and Ryan air increased their revenues, gained some control over operational costs along the analysis and deliver positive returns except for the year 2012 for BA. EFFICIENCY: The efficiency ratios measure the efficiency in which various resources are managed and used in the business. The following ratios are used to evaluate the efficiency of the business: Average settlement period for receivables Average settlement period for payables Sales revenue to capital employed Sales revenue per employee Average settlement period for Receivables: A business will usually be concerned with how long it takes for customers to pay the amounts owing. The efficient and timely collection of customer debts is a vital part of cash flow management. So this is the ratio which is very closely watched in many businesses. It is given by the formula as shown below: Avg.settlement period for receivables = (Trade receivables/sales revenue) Ãâ€"365. The ratios calculated for BA and Ryan air shown below table: The values in above table depict the average number of days used to collect its revenue from debtors. Both BA and Ryan air has got appreciable shorter period to collect their revenue. In the analysis period from 2011- 13, BA managed to get back his revenue from receivables by an average of 17 days with slightly increased in 2013 compared to 2011. When it comes to Ryan air it has got very shorter period of an average of 5 days. From the table it is clearly seen that debtor days have fallen which means business is converting credit sales into cash much quicker than BA. This shorter period certainly asset for Ryan air liquidity. Average settlement period for payables: The average settlement period for payables measures how long, on average, the business takes to pay its trade payables. The ratio is calculated by a formula shown below: Average settlement period for payables = (trade payables/credit purchases) Ãâ€"365 The ratios calculated for creditors as shown below: Sales revenue to capital employed: This ratio examines how effectively the assets of the business are being used to generate sales revenue. Greater the value represents higher productivity. The ratio is calculated by a formula shown below: Sales revenue to capital employed= (sales revenue/ (total assets-current liabilities)) The ratios are calculated for BA and Ryan air as shown below: From the table it is clearly seen that both BA and Ryan air have utilised their assets properly to improve their productivity and hence it is the reason their values of productivity rising over past three years. The values of Ryan air is small compared to BA because Ryan air revenue is almost half of BA’s total revenue. At last despite of their company size both are making use of their assets properly. Sales revenue per employee: It is the ratio relates sale revenue generated to a particular business resource, which is labour. Higher the value indicates greater staff efficiency. Its ratio is calculated by a formula shown below: Sales revenue per employee = (sales revenue / number of employees) The ratio calculated for BA and Ryan air shown below: The above tables describes about sales revenue per employee. Both companies uses different currency so for better analysis BA revenue is converted to euros according to exchange rate in that periods. The values clearly states that Ryan air is more labour productive than BA and other fact is noticed from table is that two companies increasing their efficiency over the analysis period 2011-2013. LIQUIDITY: These ratios are concerned with the ability of the business to meet its short-term financial obligations. Higher the ratio, the more liquid the business is considered to be, since liquidity is vital to the survival of a business. Liquidity is measured by the following ratios shown below: Current ratio; Acid test ratio. Current ratio: It is defined as the ratio b/w liquid assets to the current liabilities. A higher current ratio is preferable to a normal one since liquidity is vital part in business. It is given by the formula as shown: Current Ratio = (current assets/ current liabilities) The current ratio values for BA and Ryan air shown below: Values in above table clearly depict that BA current ratio values over three years On the other hand, Ryan air maintained its current ratio values >1 throughout analysis period in which it properly balanced short-term assets over liabilities and has got more liquidity compared to BA. In 2013 Ryan air current ratio value is decreased compared to 2012 because it has decided to buy 175 new Boeing 737 planes over next five years. Overall, Ryan air liquidity is better than BA. Acid-test ratio: This is an indicator that determines whether a company has enough short-term assets to cover immediate liabilities without selling inventory. This ratio is more reliable compared to current ratio because it doesn’t include inventory. This is given by a formula as shown below: Acid-test ratio=current assets / current liabilities. (Excludes inventories in current assets) The values for BA and Ryan are shown below: From the table it is seen that BA values during analysis period is, this ratio indicates that company experiencing good growth, fastly converting receivables into cash and also it can also overcome its financial obligations without depending on inventories. In conclusion to the analysis of BA and Ryan air, liquidity is measured by using various ratios. The results are fluctuated for BA whereas Ryan air tends to show improvement year by year from 2011-13. Ryan air has got more liquidity compared to BA and it can easily overcome its financial obligations. 3.4 Financial Gearing: It is the relationship b/w the contribution to financing made by the owners of the business and the amount contributed by others in form of loans. A business level of gearing is an important factor accessing risk. Gearing takes place of owner’s insufficient funds. Any business borrowing money from others agrees to pay interests; if the borrowing is heavy then this can be significant financial burden to the company. The ratios used to measure gearing are shown below: Gearing ratio; Interest cover ratio. Gearing ratio: It is defined as ratio b/w long-term lenders to the long-term capital structure of a business. It is given by a formula as shown: Gearing ratio = (non-current liabilities/capital employed) The gearing ratios for BA and Ryan air calculated below: The values from table states that both companies are highly geared businesses since their gearing ratios > 50%. Both the companies have high shares of long-term debt in their long-term capital structure. So both companies are subjected to financial risk. Ryan air tends to decrease its debts during analysed period which can be seen from the table by controlling their operational costs effectively during analysed period. Whereas, BA managed to decrease their debts with some fluctuations in values which can be observed from the years, a cash flow which is strong and reliable can handle high gearing effectively compared to cash flow which is unreliable .

Friday, October 25, 2019

The Efficiency of Hybrid Cars Essay -- Hybrid Cars Car Gasoline Effici

The Efficiency of Hybrid Cars   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Transportation is a large concern in today’s modern world. Most individuals have opted to buy vehicles for their personal use. Most of these vehicles consume gasoline and a smaller proportion is hybrid based. These two types of vehicles have many similarities. The two such vehicles require an energy source and both types of vehicles provide an important function to society. That function is to provide people with a reliable form of transportation. Although these two types of vehicles have many similarities, their differences are what distinguish them. Hybrid vehicles are more cost effective, environmentally sound, and safe than the standard gasoline vehicles in the long run. Cost is a key factor to consumers in determining what vehicle to purchase. On average hybrid vehicles cost fifteen hundred dollars more than the standard gasoline vehicle. However, this extra expense is well invested. A hybrid vehicle can reach sixty-one miles per gallon, whereas a typical gasoline vehicle can only reach twenty-eight miles per gallon. Currently gas costs two dollars and ten cents per gallon. The average individual can be expected to drive fifteen miles per year. This amounts to a total gas expense of eleven hundred dollars. If one were to own a hybrid vehicle this expense would eventually pay for the extra fifteen hundred dollars that was required to buy a hybrid car. In two years one would expect to have saved over seven hundred dollars and in t...

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Xyz Affair

From March of 1797 to 1800, a diplomatic scandal occurred where Americans were outraged by demands from the French for a bribe as a condition for negotiating with American diplomats that became known as the XYZ Affair. John Adams took presidency in 1797 and inherited several problems from George Washington’s administration, including hostilities between the United States and France that began to escalate in the 1790s. The signing of Jay’s Treaty, which violated of the Treaty of Paris yet averted the threat of war with England, induced angry reactions from both American and European politicians.Democratic-Republicans believed the treaty was a humiliating surrender to the British. French leaders, meanwhile, viewed it as a union with their enemy, and the violation of the Franco-American Treaty of 1778. In response to the John Jay’s agreement, the French used forces to plunder more than 300 American ships. To stop the attacks on American shipping and settle on an agr eement with France, Adams appointed three commissioners: Charles Pinckney, United States minister to France; John Marshall, a Virginia lawyer; and Elbridge Gerry of Massachusetts.Upon arriving in Paris in October 1797, the three men experienced a hostile environment. They requested a meeting with the French government. The envoys met three secret agents to relay Talleyrand’s terms of negotiations. The three agents were labeled as X, Y and Z, but later revealed as Baron Jean-Conrad Hottinguer, Pierre Bellamy, and Lucien Hauteval respectfully. The agents insisted that before any negotiate could begin, they demanded 50,000 pounds of sterling, a $12 million loan from America, a $250,000 personal bribe to the French minister, and a formal apology to the French minister for a comment made by President John Adams.Though bribery was extremely common in the eighteenth-century politics, Talleyrands demands were too high for merely a pledge to negotiate. Pinckney rejected the terms and told the French agents â€Å"no, no, not a sixpence. † The incident became known as â€Å"The XYZ Affair. † Once the commissioners’ report to Congress became public, citizens were furious about the French behavior. Even the most loyal Democratic-Republicans, who supported a strong relationship with France, felt a sense of betrayal and many joined a call for war.Pinckney’s response to the demands sparked a rallying that spread throughout the colonies: â€Å"Millions for defense, but not one cent for tribute. † Federalist politicians were eager for a fight and the war campaign gained more support. Adams refused to declare war but advocated the build-up of American armed forces and raised taxes. Adams also accepted new laws that tried to limit protests against the government and its actions. These laws were the Alien and Sedition Acts.They made it difficult for immigrants to become a United States citizen and people from certain countries, such as Fra nce, could not become a citizen at all. The laws also restricted free speech and freedom of the press. Many citizens saw the Alien and Sedition Acts as harsh and undemocratic laws. Congress stopped commercial trade with France, renounced the alliance of 1778, tripled the size of the army, and created a Navy Department with an order for the contraction of 40 warships.By the fall of 1798, American ships were waging an undeclared war against the French in the Caribbean waters, a conflict that is known as the Quasi-War. The French seized over 300 American ships. The United States retaliated by capturing 22 French ships off the American coast and in the West Indies. Hamilton led the Federalist charge for war, but Adams remained steadfast in his refusal to sign a formal declaration of war. He believed that war with France would divide the colonies and lead to a civil war.This could be Adams’ finest hour because his of his decision to put the interests of his nation ahead of those o f his party. 5 In 1799, Tallyrand, who did not want to deplete the French military with a fight outside of Europe, let it be known that he was willing to talk. Adams sent another delegation to negotiate a peaceful end to the quasi-war with France. But by the time the envoy arrived in Paris, Napolean Bonaparte was in power and looking to cut ties with America.The two sides finally produced an agreement called â€Å"The Convention of 1800,† that annulled the 1778 treaty of alliance and excused the French from damage claims of American shippers. Had Adams chosen war, it may have jeopardized the American purchase of Louisiana in 1803. The threat of war with France was eliminated. President Adams showed Europe that the new American nation was ready to defend itself and would not be bullied anymore. The naval program Adams helped to stimulate would also help the United States defeat the Barbay pirates in the First and Second Barbay war as well as aiding in the War of 1812.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Job Satisfaction of Teachers Essay

Leadership entails a number of different parts and can come from any position in the school. The administration is the main source of leadership in a school. Generally, we associate school leadership with superintendents and principals. People in these positions are in charge of making decisions, which run the school. However, teachers can also provide leadership in their classroom and through activities and other extracurricular activities. Katzenmeyer and Moller (1996) argue â€Å"†¦there is a sleeping giant of teacher leadership that can be a catalyst to push school reform†¦.† Even students can provide leadership in certain situations such as an athletic team’s captain, a point guard for a basketball team, or a class officer. With the many places leadership can occur, to have good school leadership, all people need to be willing to share responsibility and power. Lambert (1998) argues, â€Å"Leadership requires the redistribution of power and authority.† This distribution of power can lead to trust between staff and administration. This trust emerges when administrators and teachers work together to benefit the school. Trust comes about by principals trusting the judgment of teachers in the classroom and backing teachers on issues such as discipline. So that the teachers’ authority is not undermined, discipline must be consistent and not show favoritism toward any student. Teachers, in turn, must trust that the principal will follow through on all rules and not make exceptions for the school’s â€Å"star† athlete or â€Å"smartest† student. This trust is also part of a type of leadership theory called transformational leadership. Bass (1996) says that trust is a key component of idealized influence, which incorporates faith and respect, dedication, and trust into leadership. Trust is an important aspect of leadership. With the trust between leader and follower, good school leadership will also have excellent communication. Smith, who can be found in Bean (2000), argues that communicating and keeping people informed of changes and events is a key part of effective leadership. People must discuss problems and possible solutions with each other. By not doing this, the problems will continue and the organization will fall into disarray. For example, let us look at a basketball team. If the opposing team is playing man-to-man defense, it will do the offense little good to run plays designed to attack a zone defense. Here is where the coach or offensive players must talk to each other and run the correct plays. Furthermore, we see the importance of communication from Yukl (1998). He states â€Å"Leadership is about creating teamwork, collaboration, communication, and the emphasis on a total group effort.† By communicating concerns, teachers can make administrators aware of potentially school harming actions and can put a stop to these before they go too far. One example of this would be the last month of school in my school district. Due to the hot weather, students begin use squirt guns and balloons to spray each other with water. With graduation and other senior activities to organize, the principal is not in the hallways as much as previous months. Therefore, the teachers need to let the principal know this is beginning so penalties can be determined and readily enforced. This can cut down on water damage of the school and the students can continue to stay focused on school. One aspect of effective leadership that needs to be communicated to all associated with the school district is the vision of where the school is and where it needs to go. Goleman (1995) argues that â€Å"†¦leader can be expected to communicate a vision well†¦generate energy and enthusiasm regarding this vision, epitomize its meaning through the example of personal behavior, and generally inspire others to reach this vision†¦.† People need to be motivated to do a job, whether in school or in the work force. Vision gives people a goal and direction; giving them something to work for. Making people aware of the vision for the school will help parents, students, teachers, and administrators to be on the same page and working to achieve the vision together as a team. Daft (1999) states there are many pieces that visionary leadership can accomplish. These pieces include the linking of the present and future, encouraging commitment, providing meaning to work, encouraging imagination, and defining the destination. For example, if the vision of a sports team is to win, through strong dedication by players and coaches, winning will happen. If coaches can help athletes see the importance of practice and teamwork, there will be chemistry and success. With the vision of moving into the future, there comes problems and opposition. Another part of good school leadership is facing these problems and solving them. An effective way to work to solve problems is to form a group of people to suggest solutions for whatever problems occur. An excellent model to follow is suggested by Bean (2000) and is called POLCA: that is Planning, Organizing, Leading, Controlling, and Assessing. One problem a school district might face is incorporating the new Pennsylvania standards for education into the curriculum. My school district is in this process and work on this is set to begin in August 2000. Our superintendent started this process by carefully planning when to work on these changes. The mathematics and English departments were contacted to help work on these standards. These teachers were organized into groups by their subject area. Outside help was brought in. These parties had knowledge writing the standards for the state and helping other schools work the standards into the curriculum. These men lead the English and mathematics groups in the writing of our curriculum to include state mandates. After drafting standards and curriculum for the district, the work was checked for quality and improvements were made. Finally, the work was assessed and determined to be useful to the district. We can see that effective leadership is not easy. It takes hard work and tolerance from many different parities. Teachers, administrators, parents, and students all play a part in good school leadership. The administrators plan for the entire district, the teachers for the classroom. Parents and students help with support and may act in limited leadership roles. Effective leaders need to be able to distribute leadership to worthy parties and possibly divide it up to many individuals or groups. Effective leaders need to communicate and problem-solve. Having good social skills and having a good plan can make leadership easier and solving problems smoother. Lambert (1998) says â€Å"It [leadership] needs to be embedded in the school community as a whole.† It takes a team effort to have effective leadership in the school. We all need to work together and share the responsibility of being a leader. 1) A sense of purpose: The values of an organization must be clear, members of the organization should know them, and they should exemplify and uphold them in their own actions. 2) Justice: Everyone in an organization should be held to common standards, with rules and procedures that are clear, firm, fair, and consistent. 3) Temperance: A leader must strive to maintain a proper balance of emotions; Shriver did not mean that leaders should be dispassionate. Quite the contrary- but there are time for passionate advocacy and times for quiet reflection and reconsideration. Balance is the key. 4) Respect: The dignity of each individual is the concern of any leader, and this is preserved by treating all members of the organization with respect and ensuring they treat one-another similarly, regardless of differences. 5) Empowerment: Leaders are just that- leaders. Most of what happens in organizations is carried out by individuals other than those in formal leadership positions. Therefore, the more skilled they are, the more they feel confident in their abilities and competent to make decisions, raise questions, see new possibilities, and disagree respectfully with others at all levels of the organizational hierarchy, the stronger and more successful the organization will be. 6) Courage: Leaders are paid to set direction, not wait for direction to emerge. They have to be willing to follow their convictions and bring their organization to new places. In education, this is most sorely needed in response to the test-based regimen that has taken over our schools at the expense of true education and social-emotional and character development. 7) Deep Commitment: Leaders must not be polishing their resumes, but rather should have deep commitment to their organizations, the advancement of the organizations’ missions, and the wellbeing of everyone in them. It is this deep commitment that makes leadership in schools so challenging, because it requires a commitment to every employee, student, and parent. The performance of a leader must be judged by his or her skills and the character of his or her performance in the many and complex roles that leadership demands. Using the seven cornerstones of leading with character, derived from the life and work of Sargent Shriver, educators and those concerned with education have a tool for both evaluating and improving leadership competencies along both moral and performance dimensions.