Sunday, May 24, 2020
In conversation analysis, the term cooperative overlap refers to a face-to-face interaction in which one speaker talks at the same time as another speaker to demonstrate an interest in the conversation. In contrast, an interruptive overlap is a competitive strategy in which one of the speakers attempts to dominate the conversation. The term cooperative overlap was introduced by sociolinguist Deborah Tannen in her book Conversational Style: Analyzing Talk Among Friends (1984). Examples and Observations [Patrick] had to wait another five minutes or so before his wife remembered he was there. The two women wereÃ talking at the same time, asking and answering their own questions. They created a whirlwind of happy chaos.(Julie Garwood, The Secret. Penguin, 1992)Mama sat with Mama Pellegrini, the two of them talking so rapidly that their words andÃ sentences overlappedÃ completely. Anna wondered, as she listened from the parlor, how they could understand what each was saying. But they laughed at the same time and raised or lowered their voices at the same time.(Ed Ifkovic,Ã A Girl Holding Lilacs. Writers Club Press, 2002) Tannen on High Involvement Style One of the most striking aspects of high involvement style that I found and analyzed in detail was the use of what I called cooperative overlap: a listener talking along with a speaker not in order to interrupt but to show enthusiastic listenership and participation. The concept of overlap versus interruption became one of the cornerstones of my argument that the stereotype of New York Jews as pushy and aggressive is an unfortunate reflection of the effect of high involvement style in conversation with speakers who use a different style. (In my study I called the other style high considerateness).(Deborah Tannen, Gender and Discourse. Oxford University Press, 1994) Cooperation or Interruption? Cooperative overlap occurs when one interlocutor is showing her enthusiastic support and agreement with another. Cooperative overlap occurs when the speakers view silence between turns as impolite or as a sign of a lack of rapport. While an overlap may be construed as cooperative in a conversation between two friends, it may be construed as an interruption when between boss and employee. Overlaps and interrogative have different meanings depending on the speakers ethnicity, gender, and relative status differences. For example, when a teacher, a person of higher status, overlaps with her student, a person of lower status, typically the overlap is interpreted as an interruption.(Pamela Saunders, Gossip in an Older Womens Support Group: A Linguistic Analysis. Language and Communication in Old Age: Multidisciplinary Perspectives, ed. by Heidi E. Hamilton. Taylor Francis, 1999) Different Cultural Perceptions of Cooperative Overlap [T]he two-way nature of cross-cultural differences typically eludes participants in the throes of conversation. A speaker who stops talking because another has begun is unlikely to think, I guess we have different attitudes toward cooperative overlap. Instead, such a speaker will probably think, You are not interested in hearing what I have to say, or even You are a boor who only wants to hear yourself talk. And the cooperative overlapper is probably concluding, You are unfriendly and are making me do all the conversational work here... (Deborah Tannen, Language and Culture, in An Introduction to Language and Linguistics, ed. by R. W. Fasold and J. Connor-Linton. Cambridge University Press, 2000)
Thursday, May 14, 2020
Maya Angelou is a phenomenal woman. She was born into a devastating decade, that suffered numerous tragedies. Not only had society shaped her as a woman, she has also shaped our society and influenced many lives. She is still living today, yet I believe her legend will never die. Furthermore I will share with you what motivated her and some of her gratifying experiences. How she was effected by society, and what she did about it. Also how the time period she was born into made her the extraordinary woman she is today. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Maya Angelou was born on April 4, 1928, a year before the crash of 29 (the stock market crash). To get a sense of what exactly Maya was born into, I will explain what exactly this meant. ThisÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Her parents mover her back, along with Bailey to Stamps, Arkansas as a cure. Her parents moved to Southern California and were seldom heard from. Her mother remarried in 1940. Maya and Bailey had daily chores to do at the General Store. Their grandmothers general store was a success, many people did not believe that a black woman owned and ran it. Maya had a very close relationship with her older brother Bailey. They always had there secrets jokes in church and she could always talk to him. He was always there for her, she trusted him completely. Mayaamp;#8217;s family, was one of the few black familyamp;#8217;s during the depression that did not suffer severely, mainly because their grandmother owned the general store. Yet, just because the y didnamp;#8217;t suffer severely, they still suffered, they were well fed enough but they would still stop by the poorer familyamp;#8217;s just to get peanut butter, as a treat. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Maya and Bailey move to San Francisco to rejoin with their mother. May gave birth to her son Guy, at age 17. When in high school, she received a two- year scholarship to study dance and drama at the California Labor School. Maya became the first black San Francisco streetcar conductor. She moved to Laurel Canyon in Hollywood, where she sang and raised her son. She didnamp;#8217;t like the fame, so she moved to Washington, where she met Bilie Holiday, She and Bilie became good friends.Show MoreRelatedMaya Angelou655 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesMa 2(1565443) Maya Angelou is known as the Ã¢â¬Å"most visible black female autobiographer/poet.Ã¢â¬ She was born, Marguerite Ann Johnson, on April fourth, 1928 in St. Louis, Missouri. Her parents divorced when she was three, and she and her brother were sent to live with their grandmother in Stamps, Arkansas. Seeing all the racial discrimination in the American south strengthened her passion for poetry, music, dance and performance. Maya writes about the struggles people face, racism and freedom. At ageRead More`` Speak, By The Maya Angelou1137 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pageswriter, the late Maya Angelou. This statement also aligns to a 1999 contemporary classic novel, Speak, where a young freshman, Melinda Sordino, faces isolation and depression to an event that occurred over the summer, one that only she knows about. In the novel, Melinda hangs up a poster of Maya Angelou in her make-shift janitorÃ¢â¬â¢s closet hangout. Laurie Halse Anderson uses Maya Angelou as a figure for Melinda to learn and ch ange by in the novel Speak. Melinda could learn from Angelou that she can standRead More Maya Angelou Essay1926 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesthe time she was born, Maya Angelou was subjected to racism, rape, grief and dehumanization. She beared enough emotional stress in a time frame that most people dont experience in a lifetime. Yet she prevailed. She forced herself to become stronger. And in doing so, she produced writings, which in turn, helped others to become strong. Her experiences and the lessons learned gave her confidence to be a teacher, a preacher, and an inspiration to millions. Maya Angelou was courageous. BasedRead MoreEssay on Maya Angelou612 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pages Maya Angelou was born April 4, 1928. Her real name is Marguerite Johnson, but she later changed it to Maya. She was born in St. Louis, shortly after her birth her family up and move to Arkansaw. Maya grew up there in the rural parts of Arkansaw, and later married to a South African Freedom Fighter. She lived in Cairo with him, there she began her career as editor of the Arab Observer. At the request of Dr. Martin Lutheran King Jr., she became the northern coordinator for the Southern Christian LeadershipRead MoreEssay on Maya Angelou1185 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesDistress in Maya Angelous Life Marguerite Ann Johnson, commonly known as Maya Angelou, was born on April 4, 1928 in St. Louis, Missouri. She is a famous African-American poet, novelist, and playwright and also worked during the civil rights: Angelou is a very remarkable Renaissance woman who hailed as one of the great voices of contemporary literature (www.mayaangelou.com). She is also an activist in civil-rights. Angelou went through many controversies during her childhood and adulthood; herRead MoreAnalysis Of Maya Angelou s Angelou 2396 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pagesparents had decided to put an end to their calamitous marriage and Father shipped us home to motherÃ¢â¬ (Angelou 7). 1. This excerpt comes from the beginning of chapter one. The narrator, who is also the main character Maya Angelou, informs her reader of her family status. 2. The author informs us that she is currently living with her FatherÃ¢â¬â¢s mother due to the separation of their parents. 3. Maya Angelou includes this passage to show that there is no perfect marriage and provide knowledge as to how hardRead More Maya Angelou Essay1043 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesMaya Angelou Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã By consistently weaving the theme of motherhood into her literature, Maya Angelou creates both personal narratives and poems that the reader can relate to. Her exploration of this universal theme lends itself to a very large and diverse audience.Ã Throughout Angelous works, she allows her followers to witness her metamorphosis through different aspects of motherhood. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Well-worked themes are always present in Angelous works-Ã self-Read MoreMaya Angelou Essay883 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesMaya Angelou was an inspiring activist, poet, and woman. Angelou was born in St. Louis, Missouri on April 4, 1928. Throughout her lifetime she explored her career options as an actress, dancer, singer, writer, and editor among many other careers. Angelou had a tough childhood. Her parents divorced when she was very young and she was sent to live with her grandmother in Arkansas along with her brother Bailey. As an African American, Angelou experienced discrimination and racial prejudices. AngelouRead MoreEssay On Maya Angelou1879 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesMaya Angelou is one of the most important American Authors who ever lived. She was an African-American woman who spoke her mind and when someone told her she couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t do something, it made her want to do it even more so that she could prove them wrong (Shapiro). Her life was incredi bly difficult, but it made her who she was and influenced her writing and poetry immensely. As Gary Younge once said, Ã¢â¬Å"To know her life story is to simultaneously wonder what on earth you have been doing with yourRead MoreMaya Angelou: the Lyrical Genius979 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Maya Angelou: the Lyrical Genius When it comes to the struggles of a black woman, Maya Angelou is one of the best writers to interpret these struggles and to have the ability to put them into books and poems. The way Maya Angelou writes just makes you feel as if you were with here through all of the pain and sorrow. Not a lot of authors have the ability to do such a thing. Maya Angelou has the ability to write all of these amazing books and
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Langston Hughes: A Poet Supreme Black poetry is poetry that (1) is grounded in the black experience; (2) utilizes black music as a structural or emulative model; and (3) consciously transforms the prevailing standards of poetry through and inconoclastic and innovative use of language. No poet better carries the mantle of model and innovator the Langston Hughes, the prolific Duke Ellington of black poetry. Hughess output alone is staggering. During his lifetime, he published over eight hundred poems. Moreover, he single-handedly defined blues poetry and is arguably the first major jazz poet. Early in his career he realized the importance of reading his poetry to receptive audiences. When Alain Locke arranged a poetryÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Hughes realized that is was impossible to do what he wanted to do in one piece, so he composed a series of short poems that play effect off eachother. Western literacy thought values the long form, the novel in particular, as a statement of intellectual acheivement a nd implicity devalues short forms. For this reason a collection of short stories rarely recieves equal critical attention as does a novel by the same author. In order to make the long form stand out, the author is expected to demonstrate complexity of plot and character developement. But these and related concerns are simply a culturally biased valuation of a specific set of literacy devices, often at the expense of other devices (many of which center on the sounding of poetry on the page). In a very important sence, modern American poetry was moving toward painting, that is, a composition of words placed on a page, and away from music, that is, an articulation of words that have been both sense (meaning) and sound (emotion). Hughes clearly close to emphasize black music, which increasingly meant dealing with improvisation. The improvisation is implied in that certain themes, rhymes and rhythmic patterns, and recurring images ebb and flow throughout Montage- here spelled out i nShow MoreRelatedLangston Hughes and Countee Cullen: Perspective on Religion4176 Words Ã |Ã 17 PagesAmerican Literature II Authors: Langston Hughes and Countee Cullen: Perspective on Religion Susan Glaspell and Charlotte Gilman: Roles of Women W.E.B Du Bois and Booker T Washington: Political View In the 1920s, the somewhat genteel world of American poetry was shaken to its foundations when the Harlem Renaissance started. During those times, all over the United States, thereRead MoreEssay about The Harlem Renaissance1582 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesnorth because of the racism still lingering in the south, for example the Plessy vs. Ferguson Supreme Court case. This case was about a light-skin colored man sitting in the Ã¢â¬Å"whiteÃ¢â¬ car of a train. Although he was light-skin he was still considered black and got arrested for sitting in that section of the train. This was an opportunity to express racial equality, but the end result was devastating. The Supreme Court declared that segregation of race was to be still constitutionally acceptable. Also economicRead MoreLangston Hughes Research Paper25309 Words Ã |Ã 102 PagesIn 1919, when Langston Hughes was seventeen years old, he spent the summer with his father, Jim Hughes, in Toluca, Mexico. Langston had not seen his father since he was a small child, and he was excited about making the trip. However, during this visit, no affectionate bond would develop between Langston and Jim. Jim Hughes was a cold, difficult man, who was driven by ambition to make money and achieve respect. He had moved to Mexico to avoid segregation and racial injustice in the United StatesRead MoreWhat Identity `` Meaning `` By Langston Hughes2638 Words Ã |Ã 11 PagesWhat Ã¢â¬Å"IdentityÃ¢â¬ Means In The Poems of Langston Hughes Before I explain my take on what identity means in Langston Hughes works, I would like explain a little about a man who happened to be one of the most recognizable names in African- American literature, and the struggle he faced Ã¢â¬â as a writer and mostly as an African American. A brief glimpse into our darkest days (in American history of slavery) and description of his life and about him will help elucidate the background, and his style of writingRead MoreAnalysis Of The Poem Langston Hughes 2630 Words Ã |Ã 11 PagesDaragon Wendwesen Stanford Searl English 102, fall 2014 December 12, 2014 Paper Five What Ã¢â¬Å"IdentityÃ¢â¬ Means In The Poems of Langston Hughes Before I explain my take on what identity means in Langston Hughes works, I would like explain a little about a man who happened to be one of the most recognizable names in African- American literature, and the struggle he faced Ã¢â¬â as a writer and mostly as an African American. A brief glimpse into our darkest days and description of his life and about him willRead MoreThe Countercultures: Once Pooh-poohed, Now Revered1275 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAssociation and African Communities League in the same community, and by the end of the 1920s, Harlem was not only known as a Mecca for art to Negroes but for people everywhere, even those in Europe as even Ã¢â¬Å"White people began to come to Harlem in droves.Ã¢â¬ (Hughes) All these happenings, collectively, are known as being a part of the Harlem Renaissance. The Harlem Renaissance is known for being the peak of Black thought. The changes for the United States that not only the Harlem RenaissanceÃ¢â¬â¢s political activistsRead Mor eHow The Great Migration Impacted The Harlem Renaissance2641 Words Ã |Ã 11 Pagesafter World War I, they were able to migrate to the north to more urban settings to find work.# This movement was called the Great Migration and it led to and affected the Harlem Renaissance by inspiring great works of art from artists such as Langston Hughes and many others which in turn led to the civil rights movement as African Americans began to gain recognition for their societal value and ultimately for them to gain respect as Ã individuals. Prior to World War I, there was the ReconstructionRead MoreThe First African American Justice Of The Supreme Court, And Served For 24 Years1113 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesIntroduction I was the first African-American justice of the Supreme Court, and served for 24 years. I once said, Ã¢â¬Å"None of us got here by solely pulling ourselves up by our bootstraps. We got here because somebody bent down and help us pick up our bootstraps.Ã¢â¬ I was a civil rights activist, attorney, and judge. I argued and won a variety of cases to end many forms of legalized racism that helped to inspire the American Civil Rights Movement. Some people say that I was instrumental in ending legalRead MoreRichard Wright s Black Boy1310 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesto succeed he needed to move. He went from Arkansas to Chicago during The Great Migration of Blacks from the South to the North. At his school he met Harry H. Pace, president of Supreme Liberty Life Insurance and ever since that day he knew he wanted to graduate and go into business. Ã¢â¬Å"Johnson becomes editor of Supreme s monthly newspaper,Ã¢â¬ (Kinnon 3). At one point he was interested in buying a lot or an area of land in downtown Chicago but because of his race he was refused the option. The determinationRead MoreThe Civil Rights Movement : Thurgood Marshall Law1501 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagestrail for the Civil Rights Movement from two sides of the American Legal System, both as a lawyer, and as a Justice of the Supreme Court. MarshallÃ¢â¬â¢s initial rise to fame came as a result of his success as the head lawyer for the Brown family in Brown vs. The Board of Education. Later, Marshall was appointed to the Supreme Court, making him the first ever African American Supreme Court Justice in American history. Overall, MarshallÃ¢â¬â¢s impact as a lawyer, a judge, and an activist, was essential to the
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Discuss about the Web 2.0 and Green ICT. Answer: Introduction: Green ICT is the need of the current era in order to maintain the balance of the ecosystem and Web 2.0 developments have proved to be of a great aid in the process. However, there are certain issues that have been identified in the application of Green ICT with Web 2.0. The first and the foremost challenge are in terms of making a successful shift from traditional web development processes towards Web 2.0 in collaboration with the Green ICT. There are various changes that get introduced with the same in terms of organizational policies and operations that emerge as a challenge. It has been observed that the organizations find it difficult to move from the ordered mode of implementation to the newer processes (Kazlauskas, 2009). Also, the employees show resistance towards the change that impacts the productivity and efficiency levels. Another major challenge that has been encountered in relation with Web 2.0 and Green ICT practices is in terms of the skills that are required for the s ame. There are organizations that have the objective to adopt the green ICT practices in all of their development activities but do not have the adequate skills and strategy for the same. Energy efficient practices have still not been included in a number of ICT and Web 2.0 training sessions which become a major cause of the lack of expertise. There are also increased security risks in the world of web and the same has impacted Web 2.0 development as well. The occurrence of such an attack or risk also brings down the progress in terms of Green ICT (Cepis, 2011). References Cepis, (2011). Green ICT: Trends and Challenges. [online] Available at: https://www.cepis.org/upgrade/media/FULL_2011_42.pdf [Accessed 23 Nov. 2016]. Kazlauskas, A. (2009). Web 2.0 Solutions to Wicked Climate Change Problems. [online] Available at: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/4737/5a3a314bbe025c27d8e547e511237ebe9b24.pdf [Accessed 23 Nov. 2016].
Saturday, April 4, 2020
Namaz has been made compulsory for Muslims 5 times daily the five timesÃ . Some things which are considered necessary before performing Namaz and also become the cultural norm of Pakistan are jaye namaz (prayer mat), tashbeeh, hijab, topi (prayer cap). Hijab and prayer cap are essential or religious obligation for namaz but prayer mat and tashbeeh are cultural norms of Pakistan. Here we will be discussing all of them in aspect of Pakistan: Jaye namaz The place of prayer is required to be free from dirt, as Muslims prostrate themselves during prayer with their hands, Knees, toes, forehead and nose coming into contact with the ground. To ensure this cleanliness Muslims use a small prayer mat for prayer. Structure/style: A prayer rug is characterized by a niche at one end, representing the place in every mosque, which directs or points the worshipper towards Mecca. The prayer mat is traditionally woven with a rectangular design, made asymmetrical by the niche at the head end. We will write a custom essay sample on Namaz Kit or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Within the rectangle one usually finds images of Islamic symbols and architecture. Decorations not only are important but also have a deep sense of value in the design of the prayer rug. When praying, the niche at the top of the mat must be pointed to the Islamic center for prayer, Mecca. In most tribal and village weavings the Jaye namaz is more angular in nature while the formal or city Jaye namaz can be very ornate and flowing in design. In the last 100 years is has become more common to see larger size Jaye namaz woven using the directional prayer rug motifs. Many jaye namaz also show one or moreÃ mosque lamps, a reference to the VerseÃ in theÃ QurÃ¢â¬â¢an. SpecificÃ mosquesÃ are sometimes shown; some of the most popular examples include the mosques in Mecca,Ã Medina, and especiallyÃ Jerusalem. Decorations not only play a role in imagery but serve the worshipper as aids to memory. Some of the examples include a comb and pitcher, which is a reminder for Muslims to wash their hands and for men to comb their hair before performing prayer. Another important use for decorations is to aid newly-converted Muslims by stitching decorative hands on the prayer mat where the hands should be placed when performing prayer. The size of jaye namaz are varying but the one mentioned a lot is: Ã¢â¬Å"Ã Typical prayer rug sizes are approximately 2. 5Ã ft ? 4Ã ft (0. 76Ã m ? 1. 2Ã m) 4Ã ft ? 6Ã ft (1. 2Ã m ? 1. 8Ã m). Purpose:-Although prayer mats to kneel on are not compulsory they are way of making sure you are kneeling on a clean space. Any mat will do but mats in Pakistan have geometrical design or pictures of famous mosques. They never have design including living things or representation of God, angels or the prophets. When not in use they are folded up and put away. Th ey not used for walking on as fireside rugs or general room decoration. Types of prayer mats by texture: Leather and wood: Despite from stone leather and wooden pieces are also used for prayer purpose in pakistan minorly. They are also shaped like stone. Leather is sometimes colored or preserved with vegetable oil. Wooden blocks are used for prayer and kept upright to wall after offering prayer. Wooden blocks are also colored. Stone: At the beginning when people didnÃ¢â¬â¢t find cloth or any other stuff to ensure cleanliness of their place they fixed a solid stone in the corner of the home. The stone is often 1. 5 meter long and rectangular in shape. Sometimes the front end of the stone crushed to make a pointed end. The stone may be plain or have devotional phrases impressed in its surface or the plain surface stone is discovered or made from big rocks. People cover them either with leaves or anything available to make sure cleanliness. Ã¢â¬Å"These plaques are periodically washed by their owners and, due to their propensity to dissolve, may be reconstituted by them. Ã¢â¬ If the stone is not solid it can be destructed with time so people usually discover solid stone or rebuild it after some time. Chitai: In pakistan there is trend of offering prayer with in group called jammat behind the imam. chitai or mat rolls are laid on the ground and Muslim stand side by side to offer prayer. These mat rolls are made from grass, date leaves or now a days plastic. Mat rolls are long carpets of rectangular shape with mihrab printed on them. These mihrabs are individually like prayer mat or the jaye namaz but collectively they form a chitai. Some chitai are also made for individual purpose. Wooden beds: Small wooden beds are made for namaz offering purpose. These are same like normal beds. The Prayer stand on the backend of the bed facing back of bed. In Islam when Muslim is offering prayer if somebody passes in front of him his namaz will be considered makruh so small hurdles are placed in front of namazi. To compete this problem these wooden beds were introduced because namazi will be facing the back of the bed and any one can pass easily in front of namazi and no extra hurdle need to be placed. Carpet stuff: Now a dayÃ¢â¬â¢s most common used for jaye namaz purpose is carpet stuff. Weavers make prayer mats from wool, camel fur, goat hair and silk. They wash and dye the materials, then them for six weeks before weaving. They choose materials for their strength and durability; many prayer mats last several generations. Weavers dye the wool with vegetable pigments from recipes handed down from generation to generation. Weavers decorate prayer mats with geometric designs and small stylized flowers and plants because Islam forbids any idolization. Detailed geometric borders with plain centers are featured in plain prayer mat designs, but many are far more lavish. They feature stylized flower motifs and geometric patterns in borders and forming the mihrab. The mihrab is the place where the Muslim places his head when he is kneeling in prayer. It represents the doorway of the revered sacred mosque in Mecca. Tribes and villagers often make mats famous for their floral designs, and many old prayer mats are valuable collectors items. Hijab If we look at the meaning of the word Hijab in the dictionary we learn that the word means veil, screen, covering or curtain. Hijab literally means Ã¢â¬Å"screenÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"curtainÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"partitionÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"concealment. Ã¢â¬ In the verb form, it means Ã¢â¬Å"to conceal oneselfÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"hide from the view. Ã¢â¬ In the ShariÃ¢â¬Ëa, it means to cover, conceal or hide oneself from view of those men with whom marriage is or may become permissible. Hijab for both men and women: The Hadith also includes rules for dressing. Both men and women are directed to cover themselves when they are in public areas. For men, following hijab means that the body should be covered at a minimum from the navel to the knees in loose, opaque clothing. Some interpretations of the Hadith suggest that the covering should be longer, from the navel to the ankles. All agree that the modest covering should be worn at all times, including prayer. Types of Hijab: Some Muslims interpret hijab as a minimal covering of the face and body, while others believe that hijab requires a complete securement of the entire body in opaque garments. More strict interpretations of hijab include an understanding that the face should be covered as well. Square scarf: The most commonly worn is a square scarf that covers the head and neck but leaves the face clear. Al-Amira: The al-amira is a two piece veil. It consists of a close fitting cap and an accompanying scarf. Shayla: The shayla is a long, rectangular scarf. It is wrapped around the head and tucked or pinned in place. Khimar: The Khimar is a cap-like veil that hangs down to just down the waist. It covers the hairs, neck and shoulders completely, but leaves the face clear. Chador: The chador is a full body cloak. It is often accompanied by a smaller headscarf underneath. Chador is mostly viewed in rural areas of balochistan and Punjab. Nikab: The Nikab is a veil for the face that leaves the area around the eyes clear. It is the most common type of hijab practiced in Pakistan. Burqa: The Burqa is the most concealing of all Islamic veils. It covers entire face and the body. Burqa is practiced mostly in kpk. Tasbeeh Tasbeeh? in its literary meaning is Glorification?. The Holy Qur? aan says, Ã¢â¬Å"Whatever is in the heavens and the earth glorifies Allah S. W. T. Ã¢â¬ I would like to share some knowledge in regard to realities of Tasbeeh. In order to understand the origins, significance, and importance of Tasbeeh e Fatima (S. A). TasbeehÃ ( ) is a form ofÃ dhikrÃ that involves the repetitive utterances of short sentences glorifyingÃ God, inÃ Islam. To keep track of counting either theÃ phalangesÃ of the right hand or aÃ misbahaÃ is used. The tasbih is similar to theÃ prayer ropeÃ of theÃ Eastern ChurchÃ and theÃ rosaryÃ in theÃ Roman Catholic Church. It is stated that one who recites this Tasbeeh after Namaaz gets the Sawaab of one thousand Rak? at. Imaam Ja? afer Saadiq A. S. aid that whoever is punctual in reciting this Tasbeeh shall never become one amongst the unfortunates. Tasbeeh is taken as reciting GodÃ¢â¬â¢s name on beads. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s also called Tasbeeh Fatima(Ra), since there is a hadees that he advised her so. People normally use a 100 bead Tasbeeh, but some use a 1000 one. Some do on millions of seeds or grain. They keep uttering some Arabic words without knowing the mean ing, lips moving and fingers on beads and think it is a great obedience. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s not only Muslims, other religions also have adopted this practice, or vice versa. . But Tasbeeh means to perform as ordered or to obey God. Everything, living or material is doing tasbeeh, means doing their assigned jobs. Ã¢â¬Å"TasbeehÃ of Allah ( ? )Ã is to declare His perfection and to glorify HimÃ by removing any fault, deficiency, weakness or similarity to creationÃ from Him. Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Whatever is in the heavens and earth exalts Allah , and He is the Exalted in Might, the Wise. Ã¢â¬ [Al-Quran-Surat Al-HadidÃ (The Iron):01]Ã Ã¢â¬ . Structure and Style: Tasbih are most commonly made of various stones or woodenÃ bead, but also of olive seeds, ivory, amber, pearls or plastic. Stone beads (mineral and animal based) are made of; carnelian, amber, tortoiseshell, glass, meerschaum, ivory, pearl, coral, coconut, pebble, mother of-pearl, jade, rhino horn, etc. whereas wooden beads are made of; ebony, agalloch, rosewood, olive wood, etc. Besides 99 beads, tasbih also consists of: the nisane, a disc which separates each 33 beads, the pul, a small bead that marks the seventh position, the tassel, which is a long piece marking the beginning of the string, and the tepelik at the top of the tassel. In 33 bead tasbih, nisane separates 11 beads and there is no pul. . Method of Tasbeeh: Two methods of keeping count of Tasbeeh are generally employed. They are: 1) Tasbeeh or Rosary 2) Joints of the fingers Canonical form Tasbih of Fatima: 1. SubhanAllahÃ ( ) (Glory be toÃ Allah) Ã¢â¬â repeated 33 times. 2. AlhamdulillahÃ ( ) (Praise be toÃ Allah) Ã¢â¬â repeated 33 times. 3. AllahuakbarÃ ( ) (AllahÃ is the Greatest) Ã¢â¬â repeated 34 times. 4. Ã¢â¬ Å"Laa Ilaaha IllallaahÃ¢â¬ once. Ã¢â¬ . Benefits of Tasbih: There are many benefits of a taseeh, if one seriously recites it, it will give incredible outcomes both in this world and the hereafter. Some of the advantages of tasbeeh e Fatima includes increase in sustenance, deliverance from misfortunes, forgiveness of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s sins, one becomes worthy of paradise, protection from tragedies and one receives gift from the angels. One should recite this tasbeeh after every prayer and before going to sleep. One can also recite a tasbeeh of astaghfirullah to seek forgiveness from the Lord. It is highly recommended to recite the tasbeeh of seeking forgiveness from Allah. Some common ways of remembering Allah after prayers is also highly recommended. Authentic Hades states that one who is regular reciter of this tasbeeh shall be considered the one who has remembered Allah S. W. T. the most. Imam Muhammad Baqir A. S. said that Whoever recites this Tasbeeh and at the end beseeches Allah S. W. T. for forgiveness he shall be surely forgiven. Numerically there are only one hundred holy words but in the scale of Deeds it will be considered to be one thousand. This Tasbeeh-e-Fatima Zahra S. A. keeps Shaytaan away from us and makes our Creator to be pleased with us. Imaam Ja? afer Saadiq A. S. aid that whoever recites this Tasbeeh after Wajib Namaaz his/her sins shall be forgiven even Before he/she steps out of the place of prayers and shall be rewarded Jannat. He also said it to be better than a thousand Rak at prayers. Namaz is like a beautiful flower while Tasbeeh-e-Fatima S. A. is a fragrance to that flowerÃ¢â¬ . Critical Analysis Is namaz kit necessary for Namaz? Not necessarily jaye namaz and tashbeeh Ã¢â¬Å"The Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said in hadith that all place of prayer for him and his people may pray anywhere they find themselves at times of prayerÃ¢â¬ . Prayer rugs are not universally used by Muslims, nor specifically required in Islam. But they have become a traditional way for many Pakistanis to ensure the cleanliness of their place of prayer, and to create an isolated space to concentrate in prayer. Same for tashbeeh which is also not necessary for performing namaz but become a traditional part of Pakistani culture to perform tashbeeh. Apart from jaye namaz and tashbeeh hijab is necessary obligation to perform because namaz and here we are taking hijab for covering face and all body except hand, feet and face. It is also necessary to fold jaye namaz in proper manner that the head side of jaye namaz never come on foot side if it do it is considered a disrespectful thing, Many muftis are saying donÃ¢â¬â¢t read namaz on the jaye namaz with khana kabha or masjid print on it, better hang that on wall as decoration and read namaz on plain jay e namaz, because years gone people read namaz on the jay e namaz got khana kabha on it so itÃ¢â¬â¢s difficult to tell all the only way is if they donÃ¢â¬â¢t print them, they can make and sell wall hanging more wide and the jaye namaz simple. The reason the Ulema have said you shouldnt pray on a jay namaz with a masjid on it is on the basis of respect. You can read on it however you must make sure that your feet donÃ¢â¬â¢t be placed on top of the masjid otherwise you will get gunnah. same case is with tashbeeh and hijab donÃ¢â¬â¢t make tashbeeh and hijab with printed scared palces because can often break and beads of it may roll in our feet and we will earn gunnah. Hijab also have restriction because the girl wearing hijab may torn,lose or wear that printed hijab in uncleanliness time. There has been much debate over hijab in the Muslim and non-Muslim world. Some critics feel that hijab is very restrictive for women, while some Muslim women say they actually feel more comfortable in hijab. Does Islamic dress imply that women are submissive or inferior to men? Modest clothing is worn in obedience to our Creator and has nothing to do with submission to men. Hijab is actually the purity of human being and the soul as well. In Quran, Allah says: Ã¢â¬Å" And when you ask them( the ProphetÃ¢â¬â¢s wives) for anything you want, ask them from behind a screen, that is purer for your hearts and their hearts. Ã¢â¬ Quran (33:53) Hijab is reffered as a shield according to one hadith. The Prophet (S. A. W. W. ) says: Ã¢â¬Å" Allah , most high, He loves Haya and sittrÃ¢â¬ (Abu Dawod, An-Nissaee) At another time, The Prophet (S. A. W. W. ) says: Each religion has morality and the morality of islam is HayaÃ¢â¬ (Imam Maalik) Some women argue that modesty is a state of mind and has nothing to do with clothing. When talking about modesty we should talk about the purpose of clothing. Modesty is also humility. A modest woman is a humble woman and in a way our clothes should reflect that. When I want respect I act like I deserve that respect and I dress like it too. Dressing for pleasure of Almighty Allah. What is written in the QurÃ¢â¬â¢an and in hadiths cannot be deniedthat Muslim women must cover up. Woman, as taught by Islam since the light of Prophethood, is a precious and most valuable treasure of this world. She is to be protected, honoured and valued. Like a precious stone, her beauty should be respected, hidden in security and safety so as not to be abused by unworthy eyes. Hijab is empowerment for the Muslim woman. It is her right to preserve her modesty, to guard herself from the corruption of society. The veil or Hijab is that distinctive symbol which identifies her as a woman of God; humble, modest.. When discussing Hijab, the question often arises; why is emphasis for covering up placed upon the women instead of the men? Firstly, it should be noted that men definitely have a degree of Hijab to observe. In addition to modest clothing and following the ways of the noble Sunnah, men must also lower their gaze and protect themselves from their desires in regards to women. This is commanded upon them in the QurÃ¢â¬â¢anic verse: Ã¢â¬Å"Say to the believing men that they should lower their gaze and guard their modesty: that will make for greater purity for them. And Allah is well acquainted with all that they do. [QurÃ¢â¬â¢an 24:30] The first glance is allowed however the second glance is not. This means that a man may look once but he should then turn away: The Beloved Messenger of Allah said to his cousin Sayyidina Ali,Ã¢â¬Å"O Ali, do not follow a glance with another, for you will be forgiven for the first, but not for the second. Ã¢â¬ [Tirmidhi, Hadith no. 2701] Men must lowe r their gaze and avoid looking at women at all times, except for sound and legitimate purposes, namely testimony, medical treatment, proposing marriage, buying a slave girl, buying and selling, etc. In these cases it is permitted to look only as much as is necessary and no more. And Allah knows best. Y tashbeeh is important to held person can recite tashbeeh without tashbeeh? The most obvious reason is remembrance. When person are sitting alone or in gathering they kept on randomly thinking or gossiping respectively but if they are holding a tashbeeh they might use it in a productive way. Conclusion People of Pakistan respect namaz kit as sacred thing an place them on clean or high place. They are not just considered to perform their primary obligation instead they are considered itself as a part of the obligation which is not necessary. They also wash them carefully and separately. It is disrespectful for one to place a namaz kit in a dirty location or throw them around in a disrespectful manner. Manufacturing namaz kit is important industry in pakistan and pakistan also export namaz kit to other muslim countries including Saudi Arabia. Pakistani also buy jaye namaz, tashbeeh and hijab from Saudi Arabia when they go there to perform Hajj or Umra. They use these by their own and also gift to their relatives. The Hijab is a protection and for of purity for both genders and is ruled according to the nature of each. Since woman is made naturally soft-hearted, modest and humble, she is asked to cover up and protect herself; and since man is created weak, he is taught to exercise self-restraint. If both genders fulfil their individual duties, their faith is protected and their purity is preserved. Women should not be the moon which everyone sees uncovered, but women should be the sun which makes everyone eyes bow down before seeing it. Let not the opinions of man interfere with the directions given to you by Allah. Precious things are always kept covered for their protection muslimahs are the pearls of this ummah and thatÃ¢â¬â¢s why weÃ¢â¬â¢ve been gifted hijab Bibliography 1. Voice of SystemÃ By Ahmed Hulusi page no 18 publishing year 1999 published by Kitsan, Istanbul,Turkey 2. Pakistan Kit by Cornell University South Asia Program page no 40 3. http://www. prayerrugs. com/ accessed on 7th May, 2013 4. Islam by Ruqaiyyah Waris Maqsood page no 56 publishing year 1995 publishing house Maetu cromo Spain 5. http://www. tradekey. com. pk/prayer-mats. htm acessed on 4th May ,2013 6. Photopack Artefacts for Worship By Gill Rose, David Rose page no 68 publishing year2003 published by Folens Limited,Itlay 7. ttp://www. ignitumtoday. com/2012/06/06/lets-have-a-talk/, access date: 16th May,2013 8. http://baharemadinah. com/basics-of-religion/128-modesty-and-the-hijab, access date: 16th May,2013 9. Muhammad ismail memon madani (September 28th 1996), hijab The Islamic Commandments of Hijab, access date: 17th May,2013 10. Abdul Aziz Addwesh , The hijab of muslim women [ PDF document], Retrieved http://www. sunniport. com/masabih/showthread. php? t=78 83 11. from: http://www. sultan. org/books/hijab. pdf , access date: 19th May,2013 12. Abu Awwad (oct,2007) , The Hijab [ PPT document], Retrieved from: http://www. slideshare. net/moh12/the-hijab-why, access date: 6th May,2013 13. David Ripley (2010), Headscarves [ PPT document], Retrieved from: http://www. slideshare. net , access date: 10th May,2013 14. http://www. sunniforum. com/forum/showthread. php? 12573-Tasbih-for-Fatima-Az-Zahra-(ra) ,access date: 16th May,2013 15. http://www. 123muslim. com/hadith/5773-collection-various-forms-dhikr-tasbih-sunnah. html 16. Mufti Muhammad Faiz Ahmed Owaisi Damat Barkat-u-hum-Aalia,tasbeeh ki raye, Retrieved from: http://www. ultan. org/books/hijab. pdf , access date: 25th March,2013 17. Photopack Artefacts for Worship By Gill Rose Retrieved from: http://www. sultan. org/books/hijab. pdf , access date: 17th March,2013 [ 1 ]. Voice of SystemÃ By Ahmed Hulusi [ 2 ]. Pakistan Kit by Cornell University South Asia Program [ 3 ]. http://www. prayerrugs. com/ [ 4 ]. http://www. loupiote. com/photos/3728069433. shtml [ 5 ]. Islam by Ruqaiyyah Waris Maqsood [ 6 ]. http://www. tradekey. com. pk/prayer-mats. htm [ 7 ]. Al Mawrid:- A Modern Arabic English Dictionary, 1992 p. 453 [ 8 ]. David Ripley (2010), Headscarves [ PPT document], Retrieved from: http://www. slideshare. net [ 9 ]. Photopack Artefacts for Worship By Gill Rose [ 10 ]. Photopack Artefacts for Worship By Gill Rose [ 11 ]. Photopack Artefacts for Worship By Gill Rose [ 12 ]. Photopack Artefacts for Worship By Gill Rose [ 13 ]. Photopack Artefacts for Worship By Gill Rose [ 14 ]. http://www. ignitumtoday. com/2012/06/06/lets-have-a-talk/ [ 15 ]. http://baharemadinah. com/basics-of-religion/128-modesty-and-the-hijab
Sunday, March 8, 2020
How to Ride the Euphemistic Treadmill How to Ride the Euphemistic Treadmill How to Ride the Euphemistic Treadmill By Mark Nichol How do you refer to a person or people with characteristics outside the perceived norm? Why should you do so at all? Describing a person as belonging to a certain race or ethnic group or having a physical or mental disability, or commenting on a provocative or embarrassing topic, is a challenge on more than one level. Linguist and cognitive science Steven Pinker has called the first level of challenge Ã¢â¬Å"the euphemistic treadmill,Ã¢â¬ a form of pejoration (a shift of meaning to a negative connotation or a less sophisticated sense) or semantic change (an alteration of meaning). A word caught on the euphemistic treadmill is one that replaced an offensive or pejorative term but has itself become unfavorable. For example, the primary mode of reference to people in the United States of relatively recent African extraction (I employ modifiers here because all humans ultimately derive from Africa) has transformed repeatedly through recent history. Even now, no one term is universally preferred: Ã¢â¬Å"African AmericanÃ¢â¬ and black (or Black) seem to be equally popular, and many publications use the terms interchangeably, but the otherwise obsolete (and offensive) term colored persists as well in the name of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, and some black people use the otherwise inexcusable word nigger in a neutral manner but are insulted if someone of another race utters it. In terms of condition rather than color, handicapped supplanted crippled as a description supposedly more respectful of those described, but many people, both members of that class and others, consider handicapped itself insulting because it, like crippled, emphasizes that people so described do not have the capabilities other people possess. (Similarly, writers are urged to avoid connotations of victimization: Write Ã¢â¬Å"Jones uses a wheelchair,Ã¢â¬ for example, rather than Ã¢â¬Å"Jones is bound to a wheelchair.Ã¢â¬ ) A more recent trend has been to employ a people-first perspective, in which someone is described as Ã¢â¬Å"a person with disabilities,Ã¢â¬ rather than Ã¢â¬Å"a disabled person,Ã¢â¬ though some groups and movements reject this approach as a misguided politically correct complication. Why do these subjects have to be so complicated? WeÃ¢â¬â¢re all genetic mongrels anyway, so why even refer to oneÃ¢â¬â¢s race or ethnic origin? And why is it considered appropriate to comment on a personÃ¢â¬â¢s physical or mental condition at all? Of course, such descriptions are not always necessary, and they should be omitted when theyÃ¢â¬â¢re irrelevant. But, for better or worse, ethnic identity and physical or mental ability is often pertinent to a discussion. So, weÃ¢â¬â¢re back to where we started how should a writer describe an individual or a community or group when such a detail is warranted? If youÃ¢â¬â¢re writing for a specific publication or for an organization, investigate whether it has a pertinent style or policy. If the subject matter is dealt with in a style guide or a handbook (for example, the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association), use that resource as a guide. Otherwise, if your subject is an individual, or the content describes an individual, ask that person. If that approach is not feasible, search the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s own documentation (such as a personal website or a blog on which the person describes himself or herself). In the case of a community or a group, seek guidance from a representative or, again, research original documentation for example, a print or online publication. Whatever you do, if itÃ¢â¬â¢s appropriate, integrate into your content as seamlessly as possible your rationale for using potentially controversial or less-than-universal terminology. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Style category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:Program vs. Programme50 Idioms About Arms, Hands, and FingersOne Scissor?
Friday, February 21, 2020
PERSONAL STATMENT for BUJASSIM - Essay Example The overall consequence of self-awareness is improved productivity at work because of the understanding of ability to perform required tasks and to identify areas to improve on then make the improvements From the feedback, I have learnt that I am not as precise as I should. Some of my illustrations are vague and require more elaboration so as to make points in a clear and unequivocal manner. Even though I may be qualified for a job, someone may beat me to it because I do not present my skills well enough and miss the important details. It is my responsibility to ensure that whenever I present my skills, I must include the most relevant and provide sufficient details such that no questions are raised due to ambiguities created by me. Providing better evidence entail the use of better illustrations than I used initial. These examples must be related to the subject matter and explain all its relevant features. One perspective that is useful to assume is the viewpoint of the reader. After completion of the piece of work, I must look at it as the intended audience would have done. If I do so, I will be able to detect unconvincing parts and change them accordingly. In addition, I must go through the work upon completion to ensure that the language used is suitable and captures what is intended. Lastly, I can also focus on what is relevant so that time is not wasted on what is not needed as it will only serve to demonstrate a lack of keenness on my part. I can enhance my employability by stating clearly what my strong points are whenever I present myself for an employment opportunity. Since each job is unique in its requirements, I must align my qualifications and experience to match what the employer is looking to get from a particular job opportunity. Being lucid and cogent about my values, commitment to work and the desire to help achieve job objectives as well as personal goals is bound to paint a picture of an employee